16th Century: Portrait of a lady, 1510

015

Artist:  Conrad Faber
Dated: 1510
Dimensions: 34 cm x 44 cm
Inventory number: 560
Museum:Royal Museum of Fine Arts Antwerp

13th Century: Ciborium/Ziborium (Host Box)

Beaded container for the Holy Host
Second half of the 13th Century, Schnutgen Museum, Köln (Cologne) Germany

In german: Ziborium mit perlstickerei, Niedersachen, 2, Halfte 13 JH

Wooden core, embroidery with glass beads, freshwater pearls, and metal bead appliqué on parchment. H. 29.5 cm, Dia. 10 cm (Inv. N 42)

This precious and extremely rare vessel of extraordinary artistic quality was created to store the consecrated host for the Eucharist. The utilisation of different materials in this ciborium, originally from Hildesheim Cathedral, is particularly exceptional. Parchment is wrapped over the wooden core in the shape of a chalice, which is closed with a lid, and the object is entirely adorned with freshwater pearls and glass beads as well as metal appliqués. Various scenes from the history of salvation are depicted against a blue background: the Annunciation, the Crucifixion with Mary and John, and the Coronation of the Virgin by Christ can be seen in medallions on the body of the ciborium. Symbols of the four evangelists adorn the lower part of the chalice and white lilies its base. Scenes from the Passion are embroidered on the cone-shaped lid: the Flagellation and the Carrying of the Cross. A gilded cross crowns the entire vessel.

Kleinschmidt and later von Bock mentioned the ciborium in connection with a portable altar from the church treasury of St. Paul’s Cathedral in Münster, whose side walls are adorned with technically as well as stylistically similar pearl embroidery. According to von Bock, “the style and technique of the embroidery [demonstrate] the earliest phase of glass beads embroidery, which before the 13th century does not evidence figural representation filling the entire space”. She dated the ciborium and the portable altar to the second half of the 13th century (von Bock, p. 288). Witte referred to an antependium from the church treasury of Halberstadt Cathedral with several medallions embroidered with true pearls, dated to 1200, together with the ciborium from the Museum Schnütgen, as persuasive examples of “evidence for the very invention of pearl embroidery” (Witte, p. 1). Von Euw likewise dated the liturgical vessel to the second half of the 13th century and located it in Lower Saxony (Hildesheim?).

Sporbeck followed this attribution both chronologically and geographically (Sporbeck, p. 18). Confirmation of this attribution is supplied by a container for the host, which has a similar blue background and is from Lower Saxony, from the church treasury of Halberstadt Cathedral, dated by Schorta to the second half of the 13th century (Meller/ Mundt/Schmuhl 2008, pp. 136-137, no. 37).

In 2011-2012 extensively cleaned and conserved in the Abegg-Stiftung, Riggisberg (CH).

Documented in the church treasury of Hildesheim Cathedral from the early 15th century; likely arrived after 1833 as part of the collection of the Hildesheim bishop Eduard Jakob Wedekin (1796-1870; see Roth); acquired in 1876 by Alexander Schnütgen from the collection in Hildesheim.

Cat. Kunsthistorische Ausstellung 1876, 58, no. 364 (A. Schnütgen) – Kleinschmidt 1903,332

– Witte 19116 – von Bock 1963, 287-288

– Cat. Schatzkammer 1991, 143-144, no. 42 (L. von Wilckens) – von Euw 1993b, 40-41 – Sporbeck 1996, 18-19

– Depierraz 2012, 10-11
– Roth 2018, 45-46, 61.

From: Museum Schnütgen in Cologne: A Survey of the Collection (2017) Edited by Moritz Woelk and Manuela Beer 

Some Color Pictures from “Stadt im Wandel: Kunst und Kultur des Bürgetums in Norddeutchland 1150-1650”

Some pictures from: https://www.bildindex.de/document/obj05071467?medium=rba_c005536
Some photos are copyright courtesy the most gracious Racaire at www.racaire.com

13th Century: Cap, belt, cote, mantle, surcote and other fragments of Fernando de la Certa

 

Cap belonging to Ferdinanado de la Certa – died aged 20, 1211 or 1275, Spanish

Some Color pictures: Marianne Perdomo

For Mantle and fragments, click here to jump to bottom.

Cap:

Belt:

Cote/Surcote:

For Mantle and fragments, click here to jump to bottom.

According to the article by Benjamin L. Wild (2011): Emblems and enigmas: Revisiting the ‘sword’ belt of Fernando de la Cerda, Journal of Medieval History, 37:4, 378-396.

“In 1942, in the monastery of Santa Maria de los Regalis Huelgas (Burgos, Isapniya), served as a place of coronation and burial place of Spanish kings from the time of its founder, Alfonso VIII, was the tomb of Fernando de la Cerda, the eldest son of Alfonso X of Castile. Inside the tomb stone was placed the body 19-year-old Infanta in a luxurious, richly embroidered silk dress. Mastery of work, wealth and beauty, and not inferior to the waist, the waist is on the Infanta. This belt, unlike other clothing, jewelry heraldic symbols of Castile and Leon, had the marks of the royal houses of England, France and Navarre; presumably on the buckle emblem of Champagne. On the belt, there are also nine other heraldic symbols, not known in the thirteenth century Castile. Where does this thing and whose work he did not know until now, but there is debate about the three versions of its origin: Spanish, French or English.

Basis belt size 1920 mm long and 42 mm wide was woven on the plates and decorated with tiny blue and white glass beads. Inner face with black light green silk embroidered with gold thread. Both ends of the belt are attached two silver gilt plate about 150 mm long. To one of them is fastened the buckle and the other serving as the shank, has a trapezoidal shape and tapers somewhat towards the end. Both plates are decorated with pearls and sapphires, each taken four coated with a thin layer of enamel shield with heraldic images. Heraldic shields placed on the shank, rotated by 90 degrees with respect to all the others who are on the belt. This testifies to the manner of wearing this belt, which included hanging Shank – like the image is on the statue of King John Lackland of England (1199 – 1216), which is in Worcester Cathedral. Belt buckle has a trapezoidal shape.

Its hinged lid, designed to regulate the length of the belt and clip it at the right place, is one tripartite shield. Cover decorated with pearls, sapphires and one carnelian. 19 silver gilt belt pads divide into 20 equal parts by 75 mm. Each pad is attached on both sides, in the center – the pearl inset. Arched suspension-mount disposed between the first and second plates (counting from the buckle).

It is also made of gilded silver and decorated with pearls and sapphires, repeating motif buckle and tang. 20 sections belt decorated with alternating patterns. 10 of them are filled with intricate geometrical ornament in diamond-shaped framework, none of the images are not repeated, although they are very similar – including on a blue and white color scheme. 10 other sections filled constituents heraldic shields, some of which are repeated also on the buckle and the shank. Shields also made ​​in white and blue color, so it is unlikely that they reflect the actual color shown on them emblems. White and blue colors were not a couple inherent Heraldry Europe XIII century. Shields keep embroidered with white beads birds sitting on divided into 8 segments wheels. The remaining space between the wheel and shield busy little blue birds. Attempts to identify the heraldic symbols of those boards still causing heated debate and has not been successful: no consensus on this issue has not been worked out.”

DATE: Before 1275
MATTER AND TECHNIQUE:Silk, metallic threads, glass, water bottles, cabochons. Fabric, embroidery, die cut, crimped
DIMENSIONS: Height greater 15.7 cm; lower height 13.5 cm; diameter 19 cm
COLLECTION: Royal Pantheon of Las Huelgas de Burgos, grave of Infante Don Fernando
STOCK NUMBER: 00650523
DESCRIPTION: This headdress has a cylindrical shape with a lining and strips of fabric for adjustment. It is decorated on the surface with barracks of castles and lions. The castles are designed with blue beads on a golden silver surface that is arranged on a red background of vitreous beads, and the lions are embroidered on the background of pearl beads. Top with two metal perimeter strips on the top and bottom that are decorated with cabochons and incised decoration with shields of castles and lions.
The Monastery of Santa María la Real de las Huelgas de Burgos, founded in 1187 by Alfonso VIII and Leonor Plantagenet, served during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries as a pantheon of the Castilian royal family. The opening of its graves, carried out for a scientific purpose of study, occurred between 1942 and 1944, and provided what is to date the best set of medieval civilian clothing in the world, both in quantity and quality. Despite the violent openings suffered throughout history, one of the burials of the pantheon, attributed to Emperor Alfonso VII, remained intact until the twentieth century. After its opening and study, the infant Fernando de la Cerda (1255-1275), heir of Alfonso X the Wise, was awarded. The grave, with all its contents intact,
The infant was buried with his own suit, complemented by a ring in his right hand, a beautiful belt, his sword, and some spikes. His body rested on several pillows in a wooden coffin lined, both outside and inside, with rich textiles. Unlike previous times, the men of the 13th century liked to cover their heads with different headdresses, an exceptional example being this mortarboard decorated with the infant’s weapons.
The mortarboard is made by a cylindrical beech wood frame, which serves as a support, covered by a thin white canvas lined with crimson taffeta, on which the heraldic decoration is arranged. The chinstrap is made with two fragments of fabric sewn in round, decorated with a crimson geometric composition outlined in black on a golden background.
The decoration of castles of castles and lions are the weapons that corresponded to the infant, firstborn of Alfonso X, and responds to the taste for the so-called heraldic fashion, typical of the second half of the thirteenth century, in which this decorative motif invades all kinds of surfaces. In the context of the Monasterio de las Huelgas, he adorns several royal graves and decorates the textile trousseau and clothing, such as the saya, the ball and the mantle of the same infant, or the mantle of King Ferdinand III the saint.
This type of ceremonial headdress, called mortarboard or bonnet, is framed within the generic type of leather, which according to Carmen Bernis would be a more general voice for all types of garments worn on the head. Inspired by the military world, its origin lies in the cylindrical helmets of the early thirteenth century, and caused a furor among the privileged classes. The Book of Games and Las Cantigas by Alfonso X el Sabio offer several examples of people touched with this type of mortarboard, which in the case of royal representations, is adorned with the barracks of castles and lions, following the same colors as this model.
Only three copies of this type of headdress are preserved: the one belonging to the infant Don Felipe (+ 1274), son of Fernando III, extracted from his grave in the church of Santa María la Blanca in Villalcázar de Sirga (Palencia) and preserved in the National Archaeological Museum; that of King Alfonso X (+1284), buried in the cathedral of Seville and still in his sepulcher; and the richest of all, this specimen belonging to the infant Fernando de la Cerda, found his grave in the Monastery of Las Huelgas.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BERNIS MADRAZO, Carmen, Spanish medieval clothing. Madrid: Diego Velázquez Institute of the Higher Council for Scientific Research, 1956.
DESCALZO, Amalia. “Les vêtements royaux du monastère Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas.” In Fashion and clothing in late medieval Europe, edited by Regula Schorta and Reiner Christoph Schwinges, 97-106. Switzerland: Abegg-Stiftung, Riggisberg, 2009.
GÓMEZ MORENO, Manuel. The royal Pantheon of the Strikes of Burgos. Madrid: Higher Council for Scientific Research, 1946.
HERRERO CARRETERO, Concha. Catalog of the Museum of Medieval Fabrics. National Heritage, 1988
PIDAL MENENDEZ, Faustino. Heraldry of the royal house of León and Castilla: 12th-16th centuries. Madrid: Hidalguía, 2011.
YARZA LUANCES, Joaquín. Rich clothes. The monastery of Las Huelgas and its time 1170-1340. [cat. exp. Madrid, Royal Palace]. National Heritage, 2005.

Mantle and other fragments: (not beaded, but felt it was important to include)

Fragment of the mantle of Fernando III

Date: Prior to 1252

Material and Technique: Fabric: Silk Brocade

Dimensions: Height: 45cm Width: 35cm

Place of Production: Silk Fabric: Sevilla

Holding Institute: Armeria del Palacia Real Madrid

This fragment shows the coat of arms of Castile-León: a red lion on a white ground (León) and a golden castle with three towers on a red ground (Castile). The King´s mantle would have consisted of countless such fields arranged in an chessboard pattern. This exceptionally finely worked tapestry was probably made by Muslim weavers in the service of the Christian kings.

It is probably this strip belonged to the lower end of the mantle, since it includes a portion of the broder, formed by a series of horizontal stripes of blue, yellow, red and gold.

In the Libro de los Juegos, Alfonso X. is depicted wearing a similar mantle.

 

14th Century: Border

Translated of card from photo 1:

Wienhausen * Kloster Wienhausen * Jewelry border *

15. Century?? * Velvet (green); Linen: Pearl: Gold sheet:

Silver plate: gemstone * embroidered; applied * 22.5 x 204 cm * The coat of arms border (14. Century)) * Neckline

Neg. No. LAC 7.091/5 * color * Picture taken 1942/1944

Translation of card from photo 2:

IFDN 11 168 (13×18)

Wienhausen, former Cistercian monastery, Aurifrisia, above pearl embroidery on linen background with gold and silver sheet metal, 15. Century. (?) , below green velvet with pearl embroidery and decorative sheets, 15.

Century. (?) .

(Recording 1939)

15th Century: The Linköping Mitre

Believed to be mitre of Kettil Karlsson (Vasa) (c. 1433 – 11 August 1465)


More info:

  1. Swedish History Musuem page on this item
  2. Another Musuem page on mitre
  3. Research paper: The Linköping Mitre: Ecclesiastical Textiles and Episcopal Identity by Ingrid Lunnan Nødseth

DescriptionCovering gold, silk and pearl embroidery. The Annunciation, S. Peter, S. Paul. Wadstone work. 35 enamel medallions, Christ, apostles, saints. (Exhibited 1997). Deposited in SHM 1868.

RemarkGood, fragile

Events: Surveyed/Collected in Linköping, Linköping, Östergötland, Sweden. Used in Linköping, Östergötland, Sweden.

Material: Textile
Measurements:
Width: 300 mm.
Height: 790 mm.

Theme: On display, T54072
Collection: C4
Inventory number: 3920
Subnumber: 1
SHM Object identity: 96338
Anställd vid SHM SHM

17th Century: Purple velvet purse

Purse of purple velvet, comprising four sides bearing alternately the crowned monogram ‘DG’ or ‘ML’ or two intertwined hands under a burning heart, embroidered with multicolored silk, gold thread, pearls, sequins and rubies, anonymous, c. 1600 – c. 1625
Rijksmuseum – more info

(Google translated) Purple velvet Pouch, consisting of four chips on which alternately the crowned monogram ‘DG’ or ‘ML’ or two entwined hands under a burning heart, embroidered with multicolored silk, gold thread, pearls, lovers and rubies. Model: Each patte ends in tip and has five holes through which a cord of braided silk – ending in spheres and acorns – is pulled through. Lined with red silk; now fades to pink. Decoration: in the middle of each fries a shield at the top ending in a tip and crowned with a floral ornament of (originally gilded?) Silver canetille, freshwater pearls and a ruby in the middle. At the bottom, the shield flares into a point and the same lines form two curls in which a violet is made up of (gilt?) Silver canetille, freshwater pearls and a ruby in the middle. A monogram of freshwater pearls and gold thread is embroidered under a three-point crown. The seams between the different pattes are covered with a trimming of braided gold wire. The purse ends at the bottom center in a stepped ornament of braided gold wire (probably around a wooden core) ending in four braids with a ball. The drawstring ends in acorns and balls of braided gold wire

15th Century: Crib of the Infant Jesus

Crib of the Infant Jesus

15th century, South Netherlandish

The pillow and blanket of the crib, are embroidered with with gold work, enameled pieces and pearl work.
Made in Brabant, South Netherlands

Met Museum NYC, Gift of Ruth Blumka, in memory of Leopold Blumka, 1974 Accession Number: 1974.121a–d

14th Century: Mitre of St. Isidoro

Mitre of Saint Isidoro

Embroidered with gold, pearls and precious stones 14th century, Bologna
Museo Davia Bargellini.

Mitra di s. Isidoro, ricamo in oro, perle e pietre preziose, 14th century, Bologna, Museo Davia Bargellini.

Showing at the Complex of the Seven Churches in Bologna, Italy.

Photos below graciously provided by Alison Petrisek of Running With Scissors:

17th Century: Beaded bellows

A pair of silver mounted bellows with working mechanism, decorated on both sides with small glass beads; on other side in a floral pattern and on the other with a central cartouche with a scene of a lack and gentleman in a landscape.

English, cira 1690)
Length: 22 in / 36 cm
Width: 10in/233 cm

From: The Needle’s Excellency and Other Textiles (Publisher: Mallett, London, 1997)

17th Century: beaded silk purse

Beads and pearls embroidered on silk, on both sides, 6×6 inches. English.

From: The Needle’s Excellency and Other Textiles (Publisher: Mallett, London, 1997)

14th Century: Cheb Antependium

 


Antipendium (altar hanging) of Cathderal/Chapel of Cheb*
Approx. 1300 AD.

Okay, I freely admit I’m extremely interested in this piece since it seems to have stayed in the very cathedral/town where it was made, and lived, and is still in such great shape. I have some research on Cheb and these locations mentioned in the plate descriptions, see it after the pictures below.

Four pictures from Jessica Grimm who has this blog entry, that you must really go to as she has done a great write up on it.

*also known as Eger (see note after plate description) Dimensions: 88cm x 228cm. Museum der stadt Cheb, Czechoslovakia.
SOURCE: “La Riqueza del Bordado Eclesiastico en Checoslovaquia”, by Zoroslava Drobna, 1949

Plate info in spanish:
Antipendium bordado con abalorios multicolores (perlitas de cristal) y con coralitos rosáceos. En dos filas, una encima de la otra, que constan de diez arcadas semicirculares, tiene colocadas las figuras de la Vírgen María, de Cristo, de santos y de santas. En su parte superior consta de una tira o franja, en la cual se hallan sobrepuestas o aplicadas cabezas, pintadas y más recientes, de santos y una tira con una inscripción mulitada por restauraciones posteriores. las figuras y las arcadas han sido borodadas sobre pergamino, borado que años más tarde ha aplicado o cosido sobre una tela de seda roja. Probablemente ha sido confeccionado por las monjas del convento de Santa Clara de Cheb para la cahilla del castillo de Cheb. Proximiades del año 1300 Dimensiones 88cmx228cm Museo Municipal de Cheb.

Plate info in English – to the best of my talents and using an online translator:
Altar hanging embroidered with multicolored glass beads (glass pearls?) and with rosaceous coralitos. In two rows, one upon the other of ten semicircular arches around the figures of the Virgin Maria, Christ, saints. In the top part it consists of a border which has overlapping or applied heads, painted and more recent, of saints and a strip with an inscription mutilated by later restorations. The figures and the arches have been embroidered on parchment, embroidered over years and applied or sewn on red silk fabric. Probably was made by the nuns of the convent of Saint Klara of Cheb for chapel of the castle of Cheb. Approx. 1300 AD. Dimensions 88cm x 228cm. City Museum of Cheb, (Czechoslovakia.)

 

RESEARCH ON THIS PIECE’S ORIGINS

Notes About Cheb, Czech Republic: during the Middle Ages, and even into fairly modern times, Cheb (which is directly on the modern German/Czech border) has changed hands to and from Germany many times. Map of modern Czech Bohemian Province: Cheb can be seen almost extreme right, junst under the little finger section that shoots into Germany, right along the border. Youc an see how this could have changed hands many times. (another map has Cheb clearly marked extreme west point of Czech.)As a result, Germany calls it Eger and Czechoslovakia calls is Cheb.

You will see this listed more often as being from “Eger (Cheb)” more than “Cheb” alone. To make this even more confusing – There is also a Eger, Hungary It’s made my researching this piece a bit difficult, added to that all, Czechoslovakia was called “Bohemia” in period. Here is a period map of Cheb when it was Eger, Germany – the chapel of St. Klara is clearly marked in the high res pic entitled “De germania, Egrana ciuitas, olimde imperio Romanorum hodie uero regno Bohemiae subiecta”That last link calls Cheb “Located on Ohre river near the German border; town fell to Bohemian king Otakar I in 13th cen.; was often damaged by war, including in Hussite wars (1419-1436), Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) & War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748). ”

The Czech.cz history page, mentions German Colonization inthe 13th Century. Now, Locating the piece’s orgin in Cheb (Then named “Eger”):The plate description above says this was: “Probably was made by the nuns of the convent of Saint Klara of Cheb for chapel of the castle of Cheb.” Let’s break this down.

You can see some of these Cheb locations, as they stand now that are mentioned above, at Cheb’s Wepage and the above map link which I think shows them in period as well. So does this page.

The convent was founded as a Franciscan church, and functioned as such for a couple hundred years, but converted to a Minorite (“Minores”) order in the 1500’s – which is whwen this map was made. (go about half way across) *right* next to the what we conclude to be the very Convent of St Klara (“S:Klara”) Cheb’s page even notes the order change: “Franciscan church: The Minorite church was built simultaneously with a convent after 1247 when Franciscans settled in Cheb. A vestry and adjacent portion of walling has been preserved from the original building from the mid-13th Century. A cloister of the convent from the 1st half of the 14th Century is one of the most beautiful landmarks in the town’s historical center.” So we know it was there at the right time, and we know it’s still there. Now, If you look at the modern pic of the Minorite churchand the period map of Cheb when it was Eger, Germany, you can see a definite resemblance of the modern and to the towers of “S:Klara” and the adjacent”Minores” in the map, which would be the Minorite Church.

In the 15th Century a bunch of Franciscan monasteries converted sub order called Minorite, who I thinks were a little more conservative, even more than the “Poor Clare’s” who were founded by St Clare and who’s tenants included strict cloistering away from the world and devout poverty.

We know that the the Convent of St Klara was adjacendt to the “Minorite” church from the map. We’re at the very least in the right area of town, and it’s really cool to at least see in period where it came from, if it is from where they say.

John Moorman, MEDIEVAL FRANCISCAN HOUSES, St. Bonaventure (NY): The Franciscan Institute, 1983:[page 169:] FRANCISCAN FRIARY AT “EGER (Cheb): Franciscan Province of Saxony or Bohemia, Leipzig.”Before 1256 (AFH v, 362). In 1270 the town was burnt down, including the church of the friars. Four friars and ten others were burnt to death in the church (AF ii, 83). It became Observant in due course, but the date of this is uncertain. Some say 1463 (“Beiträge Sächs. 1907, 9); others give 1465 (AFH v, 362) or 1472 (FS i, 239).”[page 582] POOR CLARES at Eger “Founded c. 1270 being built next to the friars’ convent (AFH v, 362-3). Some put the date as 1264 and say that the house was affiliated to Seusslitz (S. Chiara 438). In 1465 some sisters were sent from Nuremberg to carry out reforms (AF ii, 417-8).”Abbesses: “c. 1270: Adelheit von Lobhaus (Wauer, Entstehung 141n); 1469: Felicity Trautmann (AF ii, 418, 477); 1469 Margaret Grunther (Priorissa) AFii, 418, 477)”

And who was it made for?
It says in the plate description… ” …for chapel of the castle of Cheb” (again, it was Eger)Cheb’s page shows them too. Here’s the castle and here’s the castle’s chapel interior (and A detail picture). Here’s a modern Map of Cheb , you an see the castle (#4) up in the the northern bend of the river.
#8 is the convent.
#3 is where the piece lives now, the Musem of Cheb.

The Beads: Where did they come from?

Cheb is located less than 40 Kilometers from the small bavarian town of Bischofsgrun, Germany, which is just a few miles on the other side of the modern Czech/German Border.Bischofsgrun is important in many ways. It is one of the first glassmaking capitols in that part of Europe. A “glass hut” (translation from web) was found dating from 900. “Bischofesgrune” was first mentioned in 1242. The tradition of glass-making was first mentioned in 1340 (*1). by 1536 they had 39 glass houses (*2). Duke Albrecht V requested the court cartographer to a map of Bavaria in 1554-1561. In it he included the desctiption as: “Here there are many Glassworks, (producing) blown glass, exceptional mirror glass, and glass beads.” (*3). Modernly Bischofsgrun is famed for it’s history as a medieval stained glass center, and is part of many “glass tours” for those who study glass history. I think it’s a good possibility the beads may have come from Bischofsgrun, or even perhaps there was an even closer factory. Glass makers were considered a reputable and desirable industry.

(*1).source: Bischofsgrun, Germany glass tour website
(*2) source: Bischofsgrun, Germany website
(*3) source: Sibyll Jorgstaff, Glass Beads Of EuropeNEW Text about Cheb History: Following text from this page on Cheb:

The history of Cheb, one of Bohemia’s oldest towns, dates from the 9th century. The remains of a Slavonic settlement have been found on the site of todays castle, in its strategic location above the Ohre river. The first reference to Cheb was in a document by Germany king Heinrich IV., in 1061. The town was then called Egre, derived from “Agara”, the Celtic name of the river running through it and taken into German as “Eger”. The Czech name goes back at least to 1322. During the 12th century, Cheb came under the administration of the margraves of Vohburg and German colonization followed. In 1149, Cheb came under the House of Hohenstauf. Friedrich Barbarossa, the emperor and the most significant member of the family, made Cheb a stronghold of his power politics aimed against the Principality of Bohemia. Czech rulers, however, also proved interested in the regions strategic location. Using the claim to inheritance as a pretext, Premysl Otakar II invaded the once Slavonic territory in 1266 and temporarily annexed it to Bohemia. Until 1305 the region was administered by Vaclav II, Otakars son, who gained control over it as part of the dowry of his wife Guta, a daughter of the Emperor Rudolph of Hapsburg. Although the town was repeatedly taken by the German Empire after Vaclavs death, the inhabitants of Cheb maintained good relations with Bohemia and, after the Premyslid dynasty, became growingly concerned about stability. The permanent annexation of Cheb to the Bohemian Crown Lands came in 1322. John of Luxembourg, the Czech king, acquired the region from Ludwig the Bavarian as a hereditary pledge in recognition of service in the fight for the Emperors throne.

In the 14th century, Cheb was one of the leading towns in the kingdom, being the fourth biggest in Bohemia with a population of 7300. It received many privileges: the Golden Bull made Cheb inhabitants free of duties and tolls throughout the Empire, they had a provincial parliament, a provincial high court, and the minting right (1235). An important trade route, the Via Regia, led through town. During the Hussite wars, the town sided with Catholics and was the point of departure for the 1421 and 1427 crusades. History records the diplomatic negotiations of the Basel Ecclesiastic Council and the Hussites over the conditions of the latters attendance. Chebs faith in Jiri of Podebrady, the “Hussite” king, was confirmed not only by this many visits but also by his childrens weddings taking place in the town.

During the Thirty Years War, Cheb suffered attacks by Swedish, Saxon and imperial troops. The town went down in European history on the bloodstained date of 25 February 1634, when Albrecht of Wallenstein, the Emperors high commander, died at the hands of the Irish captain Deveroux.

Because of the war and the general decline of towns, the economy became stagnant. By a 1652 decree issued by Ferdinand III, Cheb was converted into a military fortress. When completed in 1740, however, the mighty Baroque structure was outdated and challenge to French troops laying siege two years later. An imperial contract brought leading Baroque architects to Cheb: K.Dienzenhofer, P.Bayer, G.Alliprandi, A.Pfeffer and others. Thanks to them the town boasts some marvelous buildings, e.g. St Clares Church, the Dominican monastery, the town hall, etc. The towns appearance was dramatically changed by the early 19th century. The fortifications were pulled down and a large part of the original Gothic town wall together with the gates was demolished. And still another event, deprived Cheb of its medieval features: the great fire of 1809. It destroyed more than 100 houses. Chebs oldest church, St John the Baptist, included.

Industrial development brought revival, in both economy and culture. In 1938, came the Munich agreement, followed by World War II. The ultimate displacement of German residents, eventually depopulated Chebs historical center, accelerating a catastrophic decay of monuments. Only resolute refurbishment put an end to such dilapidation (1956-1969). Since 1989 Cheb has become a notable culture and bussines center. International activities, like Euroregio Egrensis, have restored the tradition, and the unique character of the region.

13th Century: Halberstadt Antependium

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Some pics below from: http://fraubevin.blogspot.com

13th Century: Halberstadt Antependium

 german12thAltar frontal of the high altar of Halberstadt Cathedral

Lower Saxony, second half of the 13th century, Halberstadt, Cathedral Museum, No. 203
Throne: about 58 cm high

(Some pictures from Bevin Butler’s blog post)

Detail. Red satin faded to old rose. Bead embroidery on parchment and linen. Coral and glass beads of cylindrical and spherical form, opaque and transparent. Predominant colors: coral red, two shades of green, dark blue shading, to light blue, turquoise, aubergine (i.e. eggplant purple), gold, black.

All the seed pearls and most of the violet glass beads and the gilded plaques are now missing. The outer edge and inner fields of the throne had metal plaques with Romanesque foliage and palmettes (their imprints remain on the material). The effect of the whole is impaired by the white patches left where the seed pearls and gold plaques have disappeared.

Pictoral History of Embroidery, M. Schuette (Library of Congress # 64-13379) [Gestickte Bildteppiche des Mittelalters (in english: Art of Medieval Tapestry), Leipzig1930.] Frederick A. Praeger, Inc, Publisher, New York 1964, 64 University Place, New York 3, New York

17th Century: Drawstring Bag, 1610-1650

Drawstring bag

English, 1610–50

Item info from: https://collections.mfa.org/objects/119711

DESCRIPTION: Red silk satin embroidered with gold metallic threads, seed pearls, metal purl, spangles, and bits of colored glass. Baroque design. Embroidery stitches include laid and couching, beading, bullion knots, braid stitch. Green and metallic braided cords and strap at top; two wood-core drawstring pull tassels covered in seed pearls, with silk, metallic thread and spangles. Green silk lining.
PROVENANCEEx-Seligman Coll. (London); Elizabeth Day McCormick collection; Gift to the MFA, October 14, 1943
DIMENSIONS: Overall (without tassels and cord): 6 x 6 cm (2 3/8 x 2 3/8 in.)
CREDIT LINE: The Elizabeth Day McCormick Collection
ACCESSION NUMBER: 4:3.1080
CLASSIFICATIONS: Costumes

17th Century: Portrait of a young woman from a Gdańsk patrician family, around 1625-35

Portrait of a young woman from a Gdańsk patrician family, around 1625-35.
Artist unknown.
From the collection of Museu Sa Bassa Blanc.

17th Century: Portrait of Krystyna Lubomirska, after 1603

(Polish) National Musuem in Warsaw

More:

 

 

16th Century: Ventian purse


Translation via Google Translate:

Purse

Venice, end of the 16th century.
13x8x6 cm.

Cut velvet dark green silk embroidered in silver-gilt and silver yarn and curly, pearls, the application technique, the technique of blue silk satin stitch, silver sequins. Suspension and borders in gilt silver cord twisted yarn. Pink taffeta lining. The bag, unusual shape, could fulfill most uses: purses, comosuggests chuisa front pocket with a cord, door dust orportaprofumi. Wisely suspended the waist of the dress, very much in vogue, the ‘bag-shaped lute “and very valuable both for the quality of the embroidery and the richness of the materials for setting stistica.The plant motifs that adorn every part of the accessory are made with grace and richness of details highlighted by the many pearls placed in various parts in order to highlight the preziosita. This refined accessory, which certainly emphasized the sumptuousness of a ceremonial dress, it was probably a gift love, how can suggest two hearts pierced by two arrows, according to a custom widespread in the Renaissance.

The original description, in Italian:

BORSA

Venezia, fine del XVI secolo.
Cm. 13x8x6

Velluto tagliato di seta verde scuro ricamato in argento dorato e argento filato e riccio, perle, nella tecnica di applicazione; seta azzurra nella tecnica del punto raso; pailettes d’argento. Sospensione e bordure in cordoncino intrecciato d’argento dorato filato. Fodera in taffetas rosa acceso. La borsa, forma insolita, poteva assolvere a piu usi: portamonete, como suggerisce la tasca anteriore chuisa da un cordoncino, porta polveri o portaprofumi. Sapientemente sospesa alla cintura dell’abito, come imponeva la moda, la “borsetta a forma di liuto” e alquanto preziosa sia per la qualita del ricamo e la richezza dei materiali che per l’impostazione stistica. I motivi fitomorfi che ornano ogni parte dell’accessorio sono stati realizzati con grazia e ricchezza di particolari evidenziati dalle numerose perle collocate in varie parti per sottolinearne la preziosita.Questo raffinatissimo accessorio, che certo ribadiva la sontuosita di un abito cerimoniale, probabilmente era un dono d’amore, come possono suggerire i due cuori trafitti da due frecce, secondo un’usanza molto diffusa nell’epoca rinascimentale.

© I Mestieri della moda a Venezia dal XIII al XVIII Secolo. Ala Napoleonica E Museo Correr, Venice. 1988.

 

17th Century: purple velvet pouch

Purse of purple velvet, consisting of four pattes on which alternately the crowned monogram ‘DG’ or ‘ML’ or two entwined hands under a burning heart, embroidered with multicolored silk, gold thread, pearls, spangles and rubies, anonymous, c. 1600 – c. 1625

17th Century: Game Bag

Embroidered game bag: silk, silver, and gold on velvet (Dresden 1609)

16th C Pearled Panels

(The last three pics seem to be from a third panel i can so far not find a whole pic of)

From: https://archive.org/details/geschichtederli03bock/page/89/mode/1up?view=theater

Bild 37.
Albenparura. Prag, Domschatz.(Aus Podlaha u. Sittler, Der Domschatz zu Prag) ist bloß eine mit einem solchen ausgestattet, die aus der Neustädter St Johannes-Kirche zu Hannover stammende, mit M. XX 6 bezeichnete Albe im Pro-vinzialmuseum daselbst. Die Bordüre setzt sich aus Vierpässen zusammen,Welche mit einem Wappenschild gefüllt sind und durch Blattwerk voneinandergeschieden werden. Bemerkenswert ist, daß aber auch hier in der Mitte desSaumes die Paruren nicht fehlen. In der Neuzeit ging es den Albenparuren ähnlich wie dem Besatz desAmiktes. Während indessen bei letzterem die Verzierung ganz aufhörte, be-

Bild 38.
AlbeDparura. Prag, Domschatz.(Aus Podlaha u. Sittler, Der Domschatz zu Prag.) 90 Erster Abschnitt. Die liturgischen Untergewänder. gann bei der Albe eine rückläufige Bewegung, indem wieder Vollbordürenan Stelle der Paruren traten. Ein gutes Beispiel einer solchen Albe, eine Schöpfung des 16. Jahr-hunderts, findet sich in der ehemaligen Stiftskirche zu Goß in Steiermark.Der breite Besatz, der sich um den ganzen Eand derselben hinzieht, ist teilsin mehrfarbiger Seide teils in Goldstickerei ausgeführt1. Im allgemeinen hielt das Außermodekommen der Alben- und Amiktparuragleichen Schritt, wie sie ja auch so ziemlich zur gleichen Zeit aufgetretenwaren und in gleichem Maß sich verbreitet hatten. Freilich auch nur imallgemeinen. Denn wie wir noch gegen Ende des 16. Jahrhunderts dort Amikt-besätze antreffen, wo die Zierstücke der Alben, wie es scheint, schon außerGebrauch gekommen waren, so begegnen uns umgekehrt diese hie und danoch, nachdem jene bereits eine Weile von de

 

16th Century: Portraits of Susanna of Bavaria

Artist: Peter Gertner (attr.) – Unknown

Susanna of Bavaria (2 April 1502 – 23 April 1543)
Susannah of Bavaria on Wikipedia

Suzanna of Bavaria, Margravine of Brandebourg-Culmbach by Barthel Beham

16th Century: Portraits of Sophie of Mecklenburg

Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (4 September 1557 – 14 October 1631)

16th Century: Portrait 1511

Portrait of the Margrave Casimir of Brandenburg
1511, lime panel, Pinakothek at Munich

16th Century: Portraits of Anne of Denmark

Anne of Denmark (12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619), Queen consort of Scotland, England and Ireland

16th Century: Portrait of Anne of Cleves

Anne of Cleves by Holbein, c.1539.

16th Century: Portrait

Portrait of Felicitas von Wallbrunn, 1539 : Mittelrhein-Museum, Koblenz. Germany  by Hans Abel the Younger (1506-1567)

16th Century: Portrait Wilhelm IV of Bavaria and his wife Jacoba of Baden, 1525

Duke Wilhelm IV of Bavaria and his wife Jacoba of Baden (1526) by Hans Schwab von Wertinger

Museum Veste Coburg

16th Century: Portrait 1545

Conrad Faber Portrait of Anne von Glauburg1545

16th Century: Portrait 1518

 1518 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Anna Buchner

16th Century: Portrait 1513

Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  Portrait of a Woman 1513

16th Century: Portrait

Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Princess Maria of Saxony

16th Century: Portrait

Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a Young Lady Holding Grapes

16th Century: Portrait of Saxon Princesses

Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a Young Woman 1530

16th Century: Portrait 1530

Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a Young Woman 1530

16th Century: Portrait 1541

LUCAS CRANACH (1472 – 1553) | A Lady in a green velvet and orange dress and a pearl-embroidered black hat – 1541.

16th Century: Beaded Portrait

AN EXTREMELY FINE AND RARE ENGLISH PORTRAIT IN NEEDLEWORK DEPICTING QUEEN ELIZABETH I, CIRCA 1580
MEASUREMENTS: 6 3/4 by 6 1/2 in.; the panel 4 3/4 by 4 1/2 in.

Delicately worked in polychrome silks, silver and gold metal threads ornamented with seed pearls and glass beads, the face painted on vellum. Gloriana shown standing on a terrace wearing a feather plumed hat worked with seed pearls, with a ruff above a couched bodice with similar ballooned sleeves, the dress diapered with silver thread and sequins and flossed polychrome silk bands, and with a yellow lined short cape, with cut painted paper hands, one holding a plumed fan, the other gloves(?).

The sky worked in silver thread and centered by a shining star above a vista of rolling hills and woods with a town in the upper right, to the left a knotted garden centered by an elaborate fountain surmounted by Eros holding a bow, to the right a small landscape with buildings and enclosed fields with a scene of dogs chasing a stag, partly enclosed by a bower of red roses, white lilies and yellow dog roses, with a pair of birds and a robin.

The foreground with balustrades before a paved terrace, one end with square pot with a climbing white flowers, perhaps eglinton, the foreground with a further balustrade ornamented with roundels enclosing fleurs de lys; the panel within a gold metal thread square tape with silver thread square jewels and with fleur de lys corners, and with an outer blue tape threaded with a gold thread and a red silk snake ornamented with seed pearls, joined at the top, and interspersed with woven green silk leaves. – Sotheby’s

This was sold at Sotheby’s in April of 2004 for $153,600.

16th Century: Russian Mitre

Mitre | Russia; Moscow | 1595

Damask cloth, silver, satin, gold threads, silk threads, pearls | The Kremlin State Historical & Cultural Museums

Belonged to Patriarch Job (1585-1605)

16th Century: Pearled Panel

PALIOTTO, detail Sicily, about 1520-1540
Palermo, Cathedral Treasury Detail: 21 x 34 cm.

Velvet with applied work of pearls and gold embroidery; gold ornaments of the 13th century. Figures and foliage scrolls in couched work with applied pearls; gold threads laid in pairs, gold cords for the outlines. Faces embroidered with silk. The paliotto was a gift from Archbishop Jean Carandelet (1520-1544)

Lit.: E. Steingraber, Antique Jewelry, London 1957, p. 40.

Source: Schuette, Marie and Sigrid Muller-Christensen: Pictorial History of Embroidery ; NY: Frederick Praeger, 1964

16th Century: The Annunciation

RUNNER SQUARE OF THE BANNER OF JULIUS II: THE ANNUNCIATION

Upper Rhine, 1513 Basle, Historiches Museum (1882-1892)
Height: 129 cm. Height of the detail: 43 cm. Italian white silk damask. Relief embroidery, or nue’, needle painting. Abundant use of pearls, silver-gilt sequins gold thread. Faces covered with silk and embroidered. The banner was an honorific gift from Pope Julius II to his faithful allies of Basle as a sign of his gratitude for their assistance in the capture of Pavia. On 2nd July 1512, the Council of Basle commissioned the banner in Milan and a year later ordered a copy for use from a foreign embroiderer and from the Basle Goldsmith Jorg Schweiger. His design for the silver-gilt sceptre of the angel was preserved in the Amberbach Collection and is now in the Hostorisches Museum at Basle.

Lit,: W. Schneewind, Die Waffensammlung, Schriften des Historischen Museums III, Basle 1958, p. 74 – A.B. Bruckner, Schweizer Fahnenbuch, p. 171-175, pl. 38.Source: Schuette, Marie and Sigrid Muller-Christensen: Pictorial History of Embroidery ; NY: Frederick Praeger, 1964.

Color photo credit link: Kiriel du Papillon

14th Century: Sudarium with Spangles

photo from: http://www.wkneedle.org/stars-spangles-studs/

I am seeking more info on this piece, I am guessing it to be 13-14th century.

Unlike Bezants (brakteats) which are like one sided stamped coins with intricate designs, spangles are usually plain and are hung from holes and sparkle.

16th: Drawstring Bag

Pictures & info from: https://www.mfa.org/collections/object/drawstring-bag-119706

Drawstring bag
English
late 16th–early 17th century

Overall (without tassels and cord): 13.3 x 13 cm (5 1/4 x 5 1/8 in.

Silk satin emroidered with silk, gold metallic threads, metal purl, and seed pearls Braided silk and metallic cords and tassels

Small square drawstring bag. White silk satin embroidered with polychrome silk, gold metallic threads, metal purl, and seed pearls. Design of flower flanked by birds and cornicopias; floral motifs fill out ground. Stitches include laid and couching, scroll couching, satin stitch, raised work, and knots.

Salmon/white/metallic cords with two silk and metallic covered-wood tassels; three similar tassels at base. Pink silk lining. White satin is fraying at top and bottom to reveal vertical pink and green wefts.

14th Century: Christ child cloak

Clothing for a Child Christ Statue(?)
Second half of 14th Cen.
In German: Bildbekleidung aus der Marktkirche Hannover, Mitte bis 2. Halfte 14 Jh.

15th Century: Mantle of the Order of the Golden Fleece

THE VESTMENTS OF THE ORDER OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE

Netherlands, Brussels (?), second and third quarter of the 15th century
Vienna, Schatzkammer A complete set for a chapel:
two hangings for the altar, i.e. frontal and dossal (Frontier, Dossier).

Both 117 x 327 cm; chasuble, 147 x 131 cm; dalmatic and tuncile, both 154 x 125 cm; three large copes, each 164 x 330 cm Stout linen ground. The frames of the pictorial panels are of red velvet with gold bands. Embroidery in gold thread, pearls, topazes, sapphires. Coloured silks in a great variety of shades; red, bluish, pink, brownish red, carmine, flame red, blue in various shades, apple green shading to olive green, ochre, lilac, violet, greyish brown, and various shot tones. Or nue’; heads and hands in needle painting; split and satin stitches and couched work. Each of the panels were then sewn together and framed with the gold borders. Extraordinarily good state of preservation. The age of the work is apparent only in the occasional detachment of the embroidery from the background, some loose threads and very slight losses of pearls.

15th Century: Halberstadt mitre with four saints

 

Miter With Four Saints. c. 1401/1500. Dom und Domschatz Halberstadt. Halberstadt, Germany. Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur. 7 Jul 2011.

15th Century: Portrait

Hemma von Gurk wearing the Order of the Swan by Sebald Bopp,c. 1490

Artist active at the court of Ansbach (?) c 1490, Thyssen-Bornemisza CollectionSource: the book Early German Painting 1350-1550

15th Century: Montecassino mitre

Photo credit: http://thefarsight2.blogspot.com/2009/11/mighty-mitres.html

 

A 15th-century mitra preciosa that was commissioned by Pope Leo X. From the treasury of Montecassino.

 

Photo credit: http://thefarsight2.blogspot.com/2009/11/mighty-mitres.html

15th Century: Minden Mitre

The Annunciation worked on a mitre from Minden of c.1400
Silk, pearls, and silver-gilt motifs; the scene on the reverse is the Virgin Enthroned.

From: “Medieval Craftsmen: Embroiderers,” by Kay Staniland, University of Toronto Press, 1991, pp. 46-48. ISBN: 0-8020-6915-0

Elaborate medieval embroideries were often further enhanced by the addition of pearls and other precious and semi-precious stones, gold or silver ornaments, enameled plaques or, very occasionally at this period, glass beads or discs, whilst some are almost exclusively composed of these ornaments and might not properly be considered as embroideries. These powerful symbols of class and wealth were at least as widely seen in the church as in royal or aristocratic courts: many of these rich creations were the gift of wealthy patrons seeking influence or favors. However, it would eventually be this very enrichment which ensured the destruction of these pieces, for once the gold, jewels, and pearls were removed, the ground would quickly be recycled. So much of this work has disappeared that it can now be difficult to envisage the extravagance involved, though the imagination is aided by fifteenth-century paintings which, with their naturalistic and precise approach, frequently portray these jewel-enriched garments. Coupled with the boldly designed and colored Italian silks and velvets the effect must indeed have been sumptuous and impressive.

Pearls were very popular in the Middle Ages, especially tiny seed pearls, which were much used in place of jewels in crowns, or to form haloes, birds, masks, or other decorative motifs. English royal accounts of the fourteenth century reveal that these pearls cost between £1 and £2 per ounce. Together with a range of other, larger pearls, some colored, originating from the East or from Scotland, they were frequently employed upon festal or jousting garments at the French and English courts and often massed together to form decorative motifs. In 1345-9, for example, Edward III’s armourer John de Cologne made five hoods of white cloth for the King and his friends, each worked with blue dancing men and fastening at the front with buttons of large pearls. They required 2350 large pearls, together with velvet, silk and gold thread. These richly embroidered hoods were fashionable at the time and there are many entries listing the expensive requirements for them.

The mitre from Minden, a rare and almost complete survival from the Middle Ages, shows the technique used in an ecclesiastical context, combined with plaques and golden ornaments, whilst the single mask and few acorns of pearls still in place on the Butler-Bowden cope show something of the original richness of the embroideries.

The incorporation of gold ornaments similarly enlivened the decoration, catching the light and adding an impressive three-dimensional quality. The ornaments, as with pearls, could simply be assembled and sewn into place and did not therefore demand the services of skilled embroiderers. Rather, they invo