17th Century: Portrait of a young woman from a Gdańsk patrician family, around 1625-35

Portrait of a young woman from a Gdańsk patrician family, around 1625-35.
Artist unknown.
From the collection of Museu Sa Bassa Blanc.

17th Century: Portrait of Krystyna Lubomirska, after 1603

(Polish) National Musuem in Warsaw

More:

 

 

17th Century: Portrait of a lady with an elaborate jewelled headdress

Spanish School, 17th Century
Portrait of a lady with an elaborate jewelled headdress
oil on canvas
28 x 22 in. (71.1 x 55.9 cm.)

17th Century: Flinderhaube

This is from a SCA researcher, who did a rather spectacular bit of research into those amazing gold German cauls you see often. Sometimes they look like beads, but sometimes they don’t, and here is a bit of info on what they are!

I will just send you there since it’s not entirely beads, even though a decorative thing with a hole technically qualifies, but it is late to post period so – off you go!

Flinderhaube – project documentation

15th Century: Halberstadt mitre with four saints

 

Miter With Four Saints. c. 1401/1500. Dom und Domschatz Halberstadt. Halberstadt, Germany. Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur. 7 Jul 2011.

15th Century: Montecassino mitre

Photo credit: http://thefarsight2.blogspot.com/2009/11/mighty-mitres.html

 

A 15th-century mitra preciosa that was commissioned by Pope Leo X. From the treasury of Montecassino.

 

Photo credit: http://thefarsight2.blogspot.com/2009/11/mighty-mitres.html

15th Century: Minden Mitre

The Annunciation worked on a mitre from Minden of c.1400
Silk, pearls, and silver-gilt motifs; the scene on the reverse is the Virgin Enthroned.

From: “Medieval Craftsmen: Embroiderers,” by Kay Staniland, University of Toronto Press, 1991, pp. 46-48. ISBN: 0-8020-6915-0

Elaborate medieval embroideries were often further enhanced by the addition of pearls and other precious and semi-precious stones, gold or silver ornaments, enameled plaques or, very occasionally at this period, glass beads or discs, whilst some are almost exclusively composed of these ornaments and might not properly be considered as embroideries. These powerful symbols of class and wealth were at least as widely seen in the church as in royal or aristocratic courts: many of these rich creations were the gift of wealthy patrons seeking influence or favors. However, it would eventually be this very enrichment which ensured the destruction of these pieces, for once the gold, jewels, and pearls were removed, the ground would quickly be recycled. So much of this work has disappeared that it can now be difficult to envisage the extravagance involved, though the imagination is aided by fifteenth-century paintings which, with their naturalistic and precise approach, frequently portray these jewel-enriched garments. Coupled with the boldly designed and colored Italian silks and velvets the effect must indeed have been sumptuous and impressive.

Pearls were very popular in the Middle Ages, especially tiny seed pearls, which were much used in place of jewels in crowns, or to form haloes, birds, masks, or other decorative motifs. English royal accounts of the fourteenth century reveal that these pearls cost between £1 and £2 per ounce. Together with a range of other, larger pearls, some colored, originating from the East or from Scotland, they were frequently employed upon festal or jousting garments at the French and English courts and often massed together to form decorative motifs. In 1345-9, for example, Edward III’s armourer John de Cologne made five hoods of white cloth for the King and his friends, each worked with blue dancing men and fastening at the front with buttons of large pearls. They required 2350 large pearls, together with velvet, silk and gold thread. These richly embroidered hoods were fashionable at the time and there are many entries listing the expensive requirements for them.

The mitre from Minden, a rare and almost complete survival from the Middle Ages, shows the technique used in an ecclesiastical context, combined with plaques and golden ornaments, whilst the single mask and few acorns of pearls still in place on the Butler-Bowden cope show something of the original richness of the embroideries.

The incorporation of gold ornaments similarly enlivened the decoration, catching the light and adding an impressive three-dimensional quality. The ornaments, as with pearls, could simply be assembled and sewn into place and did not therefore demand the services of skilled embroiderers. Rather, they involved goldsmiths to create them in specially carved moulds, drawing these craftsmen into the large embroidery workshops. Also catching the light in embroideries were “doublets” — tiny discs of glass of a type still seen in Indian embroideries — which appear to have come from Venice.

Countless similar examples are described in both the English and French royal accounts of the fourteenth century, none of which, sadly, have survived. For the Christmas and New Year festivities in 1393-4, two gloriously extravagant and light-hearted concoctions of this kind were created for Richard II: a white satin doublet embroidered in gold with orange trees on which hung one hundred silver-gilt oranges, and a “hancelyn” (believed to be a loose outer garment), also of white satin which was embroidered with leeches, water and rocks, and amongst which were placed fifteen silver-gilt mussels and fifteen silver-gilt whelks. How these must all have sparkled in the subdued lighting of the medieval royal halls. Late medieval taste was particularly attracted to light-reflecting ornaments on clothing and horse-harness where movement would produce a multitude of glinting reflections. Consequently gold and silver motifs of all shapes and sizes were incorporated into embroidery. In 1441 the Goldsmiths Company confirmed and renewed their Ordinance for Making Spangles which fixed prices. These “spangles” were the equivalent of modern sequins, mall, round, thin pieces of glittering metal with a hole in the centre to admit a thread; some were rectangular in shape and sewn at one end only, whilst ohers survive in situ on embroideries but a number have turned up in archaeological contexts, perhaps the small lost hoards of people in flight from invaders.

15th Century: Kreuzlingen Mitre

The monastery Kreuzlingen was founded around 1125 by the Constance Bishop Ulrich I as Augustinian Monastery. The Mitra, a magnificent goldsmith work with translucent enamels and elaborate beadwork, now in the inventory of the Historical Museum Thurgau in Frauenfeld, is so far attributed to the Abbot Erhard Lind.

Legend has it that Pope John XXIII. as a gift on the occasion of an overnight stay of the Pope and his more than 600-member allegiance in the monastery Kreuzlingen on October 27, 1414 on the way to the Constance Council to the Abbot handed over.

The Mitra is an exquisite late medieval goldsmith’s work of outstanding importance. It will be presented for the first time after the restoration in 2014 at the Constance Council outside the premises of the Historisches Museum Thurgau. In collaboration with the scientific management and textile restorers of the Abegg Foundation, the Competence Center for Textile Restoration in Riggisberg, the showpiece will be extensively examined and conserved art historically and art-technologically.

Text via: http://hj-bleier.de/projekte-metallrestaurierung/kreuzlingen-mitra-15-jh/

 

14th Century: Blue Silk Mitre

Mitre of Saint Isidoro ~ Embroidered with gold, pearls and precious stones 14th century ~ Bologna ~ Museo Davia Bargellini.

Mitra di s. Isidoro, ricamo in oro, perle e pietre preziose, 14th century, Bologna, Museo Davia Bargellini.

This is all I have on this, if I find more it will be here.

16th Century: Russian Mitre


Mitra ШИТЬЕ/Митра Век: XVI-XVII Место хранения: Государственный музей искусств Грузии Размер: 28,5 х 19,5 Edit
Mitra SHIT'Ye/Mitra Vek: XVI-XVII Mesto khraneniya: Gosudarstvennyy muzey iskusstv Gruzii Razmer: 28,5 kh 19,5

Mitra SEAT / Mitra Century: XVI-XVII Location: State Museum of Art of Georgia Size: 28.5 x 19.5

16th Century: Geweihter Hut (Hat)

Geweihter Hut

CULTURE
Italian

DATING
1567

MANUFACTURER / IN
Flaminio de Gatto, (Seidensticker) (around 1565 – 1570)

MATERIAL / TECHNOLOGY
Hat: black velvet, gold-plated edging, real pearls, sword: silver, gilded, wood, gold cloth

 

17th Century: Ironing Crown

Ironing crown (belongs to the head reliquary of St. Walburga)

Location: Scheer, Catholic parish church of St. Nicholas & former collegiate church
Date:1601/1700

Item:Krone
Genus:Applied Arts

Material / Technique:enamel, pearl, gemstone

Link to this page:https://www.bildindex.de/document/obj20745011

Record of:Bildarchiv Foto Marburg

14th Century: Amalfi Mitre

Mitre – Amalfi, Museo Diocesano – Neapolitan Workmanship – first quater of the 14th century – Pearls and golden plates with precious stones – Angevin Naples – Temporary exhibition – Museum of the Treasure of  Saint January in Naples

Color Pictures via flickr user *Karl*

14th Century: San Lorenzo Mitre

BeadedMitre-fullMitre – Cathedral of San Lorenzo at Scala/Ravello – Southern Italian Goldsmiths – 13th-14th century – Red silk with pearls and golden plates with enamelled Apostles – Angevin Naples – Temporary exhibition – Museum of the Treasure of Saint January in Naples

Color Pictures via flickr user *Karl* – clicking will take you to the pic

14th Century: Paintings

Hours of Bertrando dei Rossi Visconti, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS lat 757 f380, Lombardy, 1385.

Taticum sanitatis, Italian c. 1390-1400, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris

13th Century: Cap of Alfonso X

birrete alfonso X imagen_envia

Alfonso X (also occasionally known as AlphonsoAlphonse, or Alfons, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), was the King of CastileLeón and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284.

13th Century: Cap, belt, cote, surcote of Fernando de la Certa

 

Cap belonging to Ferdinanado de la Certa, died aged 20 , 1211 or 1275, Spanish

Some Color pictures: Marianne Perdomo

Cap:

Belt:

Cote/Surcote:

According to the article by Benjamin L. Wild (2011): Emblems and enigmas: Revisiting the ‘sword’ belt of Fernando de la Cerda, Journal of Medieval History, 37:4, 378-396.

“In 1942, in the monastery of Santa Maria de los Regalis Huelgas (Burgos, Isapniya), served as a place of coronation and burial place of Spanish kings from the time of its founder, Alfonso VIII, was the tomb of Fernando de la Cerda, the eldest son of Alfonso X of Castile. Inside the tomb stone was placed the body 19-year-old Infanta in a luxurious, richly embroidered silk dress. Mastery of work, wealth and beauty, and not inferior to the waist, the waist is on the Infanta. This belt, unlike other clothing, jewelry heraldic symbols of Castile and Leon, had the marks of the royal houses of England, France and Navarre; presumably on the buckle emblem of Champagne. On the belt, there are also nine other heraldic symbols, not known in the thirteenth century Castile. Where does this thing and whose work he did not know until now, but there is debate about the three versions of its origin: Spanish, French or English.

Basis belt size 1920 mm long and 42 mm wide was woven on the plates and decorated with tiny blue and white glass beads. Inner face with black light green silk embroidered with gold thread. Both ends of the belt are attached two silver gilt plate about 150 mm long. To one of them is fastened the buckle and the other serving as the shank, has a trapezoidal shape and tapers somewhat towards the end. Both plates are decorated with pearls and sapphires, each taken four coated with a thin layer of enamel shield with heraldic images. Heraldic shields placed on the shank, rotated by 90 degrees with respect to all the others who are on the belt. This testifies to the manner of wearing this belt, which included hanging Shank – like the image is on the statue of King John Lackland of England (1199 – 1216), which is in Worcester Cathedral. Belt buckle has a trapezoidal shape.

Its hinged lid, designed to regulate the length of the belt and clip it at the right place, is one tripartite shield. Cover decorated with pearls, sapphires and one carnelian. 19 silver gilt belt pads divide into 20 equal parts by 75 mm. Each pad is attached on both sides, in the center – the pearl inset. Arched suspension-mount disposed between the first and second plates (counting from the buckle).

It is also made of gilded silver and decorated with pearls and sapphires, repeating motif buckle and tang. 20 sections belt decorated with alternating patterns. 10 of them are filled with intricate geometrical ornament in diamond-shaped framework, none of the images are not repeated, although they are very similar – including on a blue and white color scheme. 10 other sections filled constituents heraldic shields, some of which are repeated also on the buckle and the shank. Shields also made ​​in white and blue color, so it is unlikely that they reflect the actual color shown on them emblems. White and blue colors were not a couple inherent Heraldry Europe XIII century. Shields keep embroidered with white beads birds sitting on divided into 8 segments wheels. The remaining space between the wheel and shield busy little blue birds. Attempts to identify the heraldic symbols of those boards still causing heated debate and has not been successful: no consensus on this issue has not been worked out.”

DATE: Before 1275
MATTER AND TECHNIQUE:Silk, metallic threads, glass, water bottles, cabochons. Fabric, embroidery, die cut, crimped
DIMENSIONS: Height greater 15.7 cm; lower height 13.5 cm; diameter 19 cm
COLLECTION: Royal Pantheon of Las Huelgas de Burgos, grave of Infante Don Fernando
STOCK NUMBER: 00650523
DESCRIPTION: This headdress has a cylindrical shape with a lining and strips of fabric for adjustment. It is decorated on the surface with barracks of castles and lions. The castles are designed with blue beads on a golden silver surface that is arranged on a red background of vitreous beads, and the lions are embroidered on the background of pearl beads. Top with two metal perimeter strips on the top and bottom that are decorated with cabochons and incised decoration with shields of castles and lions.
The Monastery of Santa María la Real de las Huelgas de Burgos, founded in 1187 by Alfonso VIII and Leonor Plantagenet, served during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries as a pantheon of the Castilian royal family. The opening of its graves, carried out for a scientific purpose of study, occurred between 1942 and 1944, and provided what is to date the best set of medieval civilian clothing in the world, both in quantity and quality. Despite the violent openings suffered throughout history, one of the burials of the pantheon, attributed to Emperor Alfonso VII, remained intact until the twentieth century. After its opening and study, the infant Fernando de la Cerda (1255-1275), heir of Alfonso X the Wise, was awarded. The grave, with all its contents intact,
The infant was buried with his own suit, complemented by a ring in his right hand, a beautiful belt, his sword, and some spikes. His body rested on several pillows in a wooden coffin lined, both outside and inside, with rich textiles. Unlike previous times, the men of the 13th century liked to cover their heads with different headdresses, an exceptional example being this mortarboard decorated with the infant’s weapons.
The mortarboard is made by a cylindrical beech wood frame, which serves as a support, covered by a thin white canvas lined with crimson taffeta, on which the heraldic decoration is arranged. The chinstrap is made with two fragments of fabric sewn in round, decorated with a crimson geometric composition outlined in black on a golden background.
The decoration of castles of castles and lions are the weapons that corresponded to the infant, firstborn of Alfonso X, and responds to the taste for the so-called heraldic fashion, typical of the second half of the thirteenth century, in which this decorative motif invades all kinds of surfaces. In the context of the Monasterio de las Huelgas, he adorns several royal graves and decorates the textile trousseau and clothing, such as the saya, the ball and the mantle of the same infant, or the mantle of King Ferdinand III the saint.
This type of ceremonial headdress, called mortarboard or bonnet, is framed within the generic type of leather, which according to Carmen Bernis would be a more general voice for all types of garments worn on the head. Inspired by the military world, its origin lies in the cylindrical helmets of the early thirteenth century, and caused a furor among the privileged classes. The Book of Games and Las Cantigas by Alfonso X el Sabio offer several examples of people touched with this type of mortarboard, which in the case of royal representations, is adorned with the barracks of castles and lions, following the same colors as this model.
Only three copies of this type of headdress are preserved: the one belonging to the infant Don Felipe (+ 1274), son of Fernando III, extracted from his grave in the church of Santa María la Blanca in Villalcázar de Sirga (Palencia) and preserved in the National Archaeological Museum; that of King Alfonso X (+1284), buried in the cathedral of Seville and still in his sepulcher; and the richest of all, this specimen belonging to the infant Fernando de la Cerda, found his grave in the Monastery of Las Huelgas.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BERNIS MADRAZO, Carmen, Spanish medieval clothing. Madrid: Diego Velázquez Institute of the Higher Council for Scientific Research, 1956.
DESCALZO, Amalia. “Les vêtements royaux du monastère Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas.” In Fashion and clothing in late medieval Europe, edited by Regula Schorta and Reiner Christoph Schwinges, 97-106. Switzerland: Abegg-Stiftung, Riggisberg, 2009.
GÓMEZ MORENO, Manuel. The royal Pantheon of the Strikes of Burgos. Madrid: Higher Council for Scientific Research, 1946.
HERRERO CARRETERO, Concha. Catalog of the Museum of Medieval Fabrics. National Heritage, 1988
PIDAL MENENDEZ, Faustino. Heraldry of the royal house of León and Castilla: 12th-16th centuries. Madrid: Hidalguía, 2011.
YARZA LUANCES, Joaquín. Rich clothes. The monastery of Las Huelgas and its time 1170-1340. [cat. exp. Madrid, Royal Palace]. National Heritage, 2005.