13th Century: mantel

Capa Leonis. Cope, which was used during Sigismund’s coronation in 1414, Aachen Cathedral Treasury.

The magnificent choir robe is one of the most valuable textiles in the Aachen Cathedral Treasury.

Not only are the 100 silver bells that adorn the lower hem of the coat, originally made of dark red velvet, unusual, but also the decoration of the border: embroidered, silver-gilt rosettes are applied to a gold background, the centre of which is decorated with pearls or precious stones. Tiny, crocheted parrots sit on the branches and foliage that stretches like a net over the entire fabric of the border.

Local tradition sees the robe as the choir robe that Pope Leo III wore at the legendary consecration of St. Mary’s Church in Aachen in 805. The garment is definitely not that old; it probably only dates back to the 14th century. It is assumed that the robe was used at the coronation and enthronement of King Charles IV in 1349, Sigismund in 1414 and Charles V in 1520 in St. Mary’s Church in Aachen, the German coronation church.

Cologne, 14th century

(Unable to tell, but I think the “daisies” are beads or possibly french knots)


15th Century: linen and silk with brakteats, likely a stole end?

17th Century: Omophorion of Patriarch Hadrian. 1691

Pearl embroidery. Omophorion of Patriarch Hadrian. 1691

Жемчуное шитье.Омофор патриарха Адриана.1691


14th Century: stole

The stole

2nd quarter of the 14th century, Italian

Item Link at Vienna Art History Museum

Textile; yellow silk: Louisine, patterned with black silk (eagle) and gold threads, pearls, gold-plated silver appliqués with granulation, pit-enamel in silver, cell-enamel in gold, glass stones

L. 599 – 602 cm, W. 21 – 23 cm

The stole is sewn together from a total of eight different sized pieces of the same gold-woven fabric. Most of the black silk eagles have disappeared, leaving only their round medallions framed with double rows of pearls. These alternate with a total of 68 appliqués made of gold-plated silver, which, like the long sides of the stole, are bordered by double pearl cords. All pearl cords and most of the appliqués are lined with parchment to protect the precious silk fabric. The enamels in the appliqués lie on several layers of precisely cut, written paper, which can be dated to the 14th century based on the characters. The stole appears to have been made based on the model of the probably damaged Norman predecessor (or a Hohenstaufen intermediate) – possibly for Louis the Bavarian. What is remarkable is its excessive length, which does not allow it to be worn like a liturgical stole. It therefore appears to have been modeled on the loros worn by the Byzantine emperor – imitated by the Normans in their garb. With the help of mosaic depictions of Roger II and William II in Palermo, the traditional way of wearing the loros wrapped around the shoulder and hip can be reconstructed, which also solves the mystery of the various pieces from which the Viennese stole is sewn together . When sewing these pieces together, attention was paid to the alignment of the eagles so that they always stand upright when wrapped correctly. In any case, the memory of the imperial sash seems to have soon been lost; The stole was equated with that of the priest’s regalia and was worn crossed over the chest despite being too long.

Currently issued: Imperial Treasury ViennaRoom 10

IMAGE RIGHTS Vienna Art History Museum, Secular Treasury

INV. NO.Treasury, WS XIII 8


13th Century: possible stole end

Gold, silk, 1300-99, German

V&A Accession number 8565-1863 | link to item page @ V&A

Possibly connected to German stole @ the V&A

13th Century: Stole

“Manipel”, First half of 13th Cen.

V&A Accession number 8588-1863 | link to item page @ V&A

Possible companion piece at V&A here

The maniple has been part of liturgical dress for Roman Catholic deacons, priests and higher clergy since the 9th century. It is worn hung over the left forearm and was probably carried as a formal sign of office. It echoes the shape and decoration of the longer stole which is usually worn around the neck.

A long narrow band, broadening at the ends to a trapezoid shape and finished with fringes, it usually has a device at each end. In this case, the beaded embroidery comprises a striking geometric pattern. Specifically religious references are evident in the small painted image of the Virgin and Child on the left end, and the wording woven into the strip that went round the neck.


Closeups are from my visit to the V&A visit, read notes here.


15th Century: The Linköping Mitre

Believed to be mitre of Kettil Karlsson (Vasa) (c. 1433 – 11 August 1465)

More info:

  1. Swedish History Musuem page on this item
  2. Another Musuem page on mitre
  3. Research paper: The Linköping Mitre: Ecclesiastical Textiles and Episcopal Identity by Ingrid Lunnan Nødseth

DescriptionCovering gold, silk and pearl embroidery. The Annunciation, S. Peter, S. Paul. Wadstone work. 35 enamel medallions, Christ, apostles, saints. (Exhibited 1997). Deposited in SHM 1868.

RemarkGood, fragile

Events: Surveyed/Collected in Linköping, Linköping, Östergötland, Sweden. Used in Linköping, Östergötland, Sweden.

Material: Textile
Width: 300 mm.
Height: 790 mm.

Theme: On display, T54072
Collection: C4
Inventory number: 3920
Subnumber: 1
SHM Object identity: 96338
Anställd vid SHM SHM

14th Century: Mitre of St. Isidoro

Mitre of Saint Isidoro

Embroidered with gold, pearls and precious stones 14th century, Bologna
Museo Davia Bargellini.

Mitra di s. Isidoro, ricamo in oro, perle e pietre preziose, 14th century, Bologna, Museo Davia Bargellini.

Showing at the Complex of the Seven Churches in Bologna, Italy.

Photos below graciously provided by Alison Petrisek of Running With Scissors:

16th Century: Russian Mitre

Mitre | Russia; Moscow | 1595

Damask cloth, silver, satin, gold threads, silk threads, pearls | The Kremlin State Historical & Cultural Museums

Belonged to Patriarch Job (1585-1605)

15th Century: O’Dea Mitre

The O’Dea Mitre, ca. 1420. Made in Dublin, the name of the artist is engraved – Thomas O’Carryd, artifex faciens. The infulae or pendants appear to have suffered much as they are devoid of most of the ornaments that once adorned them. This image is the property of the Dean and Chapter of Limerick Cathedral.

15th Century: Mariazell Chausable


Austria, about 1470 Pilgrimage Church of Mariazell, Styria
Treasury Height: 129 cm.
Height of the detail: 43 cm.

Cross Orphrey with the Virgin, Saints Barbara and Dorothy and, at the sides, Saints Catherine and Ursula. Relief embroidery with gold brocade, pearls, gold thread and silk. The Child, and the faces and hands, in silk, in satin and stem stitch. Background of couched gold threads.

Color photos courtesy: Basilika Mariazell, via Tina M Comroe
B/W photos: Schuette, Marie and Sigrid Muller-Christensen: Pictorial History of Embroidery ; NY: Frederick Praeger, 1964.

Information provided by Basilika Mariazell  English translation: (Google)
BID: P1-A-49Aa-97

Standort: Südschatzkammer,

Kasten 3, Lade 1

Entstehungszeit: 4. Viertel des15. Jhdt.Thema:

A. Kasel, rotText:

A. Kasel

1. Größe: Rückenteil:135 cm x 81 cm Vorderteil: 105 cm x 80cm Schulternaht

2. Grundgewebe: im VT und in den Seitenteilen des RT siehe

Dokumentation Fr.Ing.Klein

Lampas, lanciert in Gold; viele Stückelnähte im Grund Kettatlas mit GK

rote Seide und GS rosa Seide; Musterung: Schußatlas mit BK und LS

und Flottierungen des LS, BK: rote Seide, LS: Goldlahn glatt Motive: typ.

Granatapfelmusterung des späten 15.Jhdt.: reihig versetzt angeordnet

spitzlagige Granatapfelmotive, umrahmt von Nelken und kleinen

Ornamenten; umschlungen werden die Granatäpfel von gebündelten

Girlanen aus Eichenlaub mit Eichelfrüchten, Pinien, geschlossenen

Granatäpfeln und Akanthusblättern;

3. Musterung: Reliefstickerei im Kreuz

Stickgrund im Kreuz: leinwandbiniges Gewebe – siehe

Dokumentation Fr.Macho, BDA Arsenal Technik und Material: Gold-,

Perlen- und Seidenstickerei siehe Bericht Dr. Koller und

Dokumentation Fr. Macho, BDA

Motive: figurale Darstellungen in reich verzierten

Architekturbaldachinen (Gottesmutter mit Kind, Hl. Katharina, Hl.

Ursula, Hl. Barabara, Hl. Dorothea); gestickte Borte siehe Bericht Dr.


4. Borten: gestickte Borten am Kreuz

5. Bänder: keine; sondern Schlaufen, die nur tw. erhalten sind: in

Knopflochstich mit roter Seide; Knöpfe fehlen

6. Futter: rosafarbenes Leinengewebe, LW

Bezeichnung: – Tinte: Schrift im Original erhalten “Augspurg “

mit stilisiert dargestelltem Augsburger Stadtwappen (Pinienzapfen):

Kreis mit aufgesetztem Dach


Alte Inv. Nr.: 1.P 49-97

Alte Inventarnummern: Basilika: Nr. keine,

Gerhard Rodler : Nr. 59

Bermerkung: Experten geben als Entstehungszeit dieser Kasel das

späte 15.Jhdt. an; damit können die Angaben von Gerhard Rodler

über König Ludwig von Ungarn als Spender, ca. 1370, nicht stimmen.

Die Kasel wurde für die Präsentation bei der Landesausstellung in der
Steiermark 1996 in Mariazell restauriert (Kreuz mit
Reliefstickerei von Fr. Macho, Werkstätten des BDA, Arsenal;
Granatapfelstoff und Futterstoff von freischaffenden
Textilrestauratoren: Fr. Ing.Gabriele Klein und Fr. Ing. Tina Lindner).
Bericht Dr. Koller: Ausstellungskatalog der LA 1996 in Mariazell
“Schatz und Schicksal” Seite 133 – 144 Dokumentation Fr. Macho
befindet sich im BDA, Arsenal Wien Dokumentation Fr. Ing.Klein
wurde im Rahmen der Restaurierung geschrieben und befindet sich in
der Studiengalerie der Basilika Mariazell

Für den liturgischen Gebrauch nicht geeignet!
nach der Restaurierung sehr gut


BID: P1-A-49Aa-97

Location: South Treasury, Box 3, drawer 1

Date of origin: 4th quarter of 15th Century

Topic: A. Chasuble, red

Text: A. Chasuble

1.Size: back part: 135 cm x 81 cm front part: 105 cm x 80 cm shoulder seam

2. Base fabric: in the VT and in the side parts of the RT see Documentation

Fr.Ing.Klein Lampas launched in gold; many piece seams in the basic chain atlas with GK red silk and GS pink silk;

Pattern: shot atlas with BK and LS and floats of the LS, BK: red silk, LS: Goldlahn smooth motifs: typ.

Pomegranate pattern from the late 15th century: staggered in rows Pointed pomegranate motifs framed by cloves and small ones Ornaments; the pomegranates are embraced by bundled Giraffes made of oak leaves with acorns, pine trees, closed Pomegranates and acanthus leaves;

3. Pattern: Relief embroidery in the cross Embroidery base in the cross: plain weave – see Documentation Fr.Macho, BDA Arsenal

Technology and material: gold, Pearl and silk embroidery see report by Dr. Koller and Documentation Ms. Macho, BDA

Motifs: figural representations in richly decorated Architectural canopies (Mother of God with Child, St. Catherine, St. Ursula, St. Barabara, St. Dorothea); embroidered border see report by Dr. Rage 4.

Trims: embroidered trims on the cross 5. Ribbons: none; but loops that only tw. are preserved: in Buttonhole stitch with red silk; Buttons are missing 6. Lining: pink linen fabric, LW

Designation: – Ink: The original text “Augspurg” has been preserved with stylized depicted Augsburg city arms (pine cones): Circle with the roof on Remarks: Old inv. No .: 1.P 49-97 Old inventory numbers:

Basilica: No. none,

Gerhard Rodler: No. 59

Note: Experts give this as the time this chasuble was created late 15th century at; thus the information from Gerhard Rodler about King Ludwig of Hungary as donor, ca.1370, not to vote. The chasuble was made for presentation at the state exhibition in the Styria restored in Mariazell in 1996 (cross with Relief embroidery by Fr. Macho, BDA workshops, Arsenal; Pomegranate fabric and lining fabric by freelance workers

Textile restorers: Ms. Ing.Gabriele Klein and Ms. Ing. Tina Lindner).

Report from Dr. Koller: Exhibition catalog of the LA 1996 in Mariazell “Treasure and Destiny” Pages 133 – 144

Documentation Fr. Macho located in the BDA, Arsenal Vienna Documentation Fr. Ing.

Klein was written as part of the restoration and is located in the study gallery of the Mariazell basilica Condition:

Not suitable for liturgical use! very good after the restoration

Restoration: Yes


15th Century: Mantle of the Order of the Golden Fleece


Netherlands, Brussels (?), second and third quarter of the 15th century
Vienna, Schatzkammer A complete set for a chapel:
two hangings for the altar, i.e. frontal and dossal (Frontier, Dossier).

Both 117 x 327 cm; chasuble, 147 x 131 cm; dalmatic and tuncile, both 154 x 125 cm; three large copes, each 164 x 330 cm Stout linen ground. The frames of the pictorial panels are of red velvet with gold bands. Embroidery in gold thread, pearls, topazes, sapphires. Coloured silks in a great variety of shades; red, bluish, pink, brownish red, carmine, flame red, blue in various shades, apple green shading to olive green, ochre, lilac, violet, greyish brown, and various shot tones. Or nue’; heads and hands in needle painting; split and satin stitches and couched work. Each of the panels were then sewn together and framed with the gold borders. Extraordinarily good state of preservation. The age of the work is apparent only in the occasional detachment of the embroidery from the background, some loose threads and very slight losses of pearls.

15th Century: Montecassino mitre

Photo credit: http://thefarsight2.blogspot.com/2009/11/mighty-mitres.html


A 15th-century mitra preciosa that was commissioned by Pope Leo X. From the treasury of Montecassino.


Photo credit: http://thefarsight2.blogspot.com/2009/11/mighty-mitres.html

15th Century: Minden Mitre

The Annunciation worked on a mitre from Minden of c.1400
Silk, pearls, and silver-gilt motifs; the scene on the reverse is the Virgin Enthroned.

From: “Medieval Craftsmen: Embroiderers,” by Kay Staniland, University of Toronto Press, 1991, pp. 46-48. ISBN: 0-8020-6915-0

Elaborate medieval embroideries were often further enhanced by the addition of pearls and other precious and semi-precious stones, gold or silver ornaments, enameled plaques or, very occasionally at this period, glass beads or discs, whilst some are almost exclusively composed of these ornaments and might not properly be considered as embroideries. These powerful symbols of class and wealth were at least as widely seen in the church as in royal or aristocratic courts: many of these rich creations were the gift of wealthy patrons seeking influence or favors. However, it would eventually be this very enrichment which ensured the destruction of these pieces, for once the gold, jewels, and pearls were removed, the ground would quickly be recycled. So much of this work has disappeared that it can now be difficult to envisage the extravagance involved, though the imagination is aided by fifteenth-century paintings which, with their naturalistic and precise approach, frequently portray these jewel-enriched garments. Coupled with the boldly designed and colored Italian silks and velvets the effect must indeed have been sumptuous and impressive.

Pearls were very popular in the Middle Ages, especially tiny seed pearls, which were much used in place of jewels in crowns, or to form haloes, birds, masks, or other decorative motifs. English royal accounts of the fourteenth century reveal that these pearls cost between £1 and £2 per ounce. Together with a range of other, larger pearls, some colored, originating from the East or from Scotland, they were frequently employed upon festal or jousting garments at the French and English courts and often massed together to form decorative motifs. In 1345-9, for example, Edward III’s armourer John de Cologne made five hoods of white cloth for the King and his friends, each worked with blue dancing men and fastening at the front with buttons of large pearls. They required 2350 large pearls, together with velvet, silk and gold thread. These richly embroidered hoods were fashionable at the time and there are many entries listing the expensive requirements for them.

The mitre from Minden, a rare and almost complete survival from the Middle Ages, shows the technique used in an ecclesiastical context, combined with plaques and golden ornaments, whilst the single mask and few acorns of pearls still in place on the Butler-Bowden cope show something of the original richness of the embroideries.

The incorporation of gold ornaments similarly enlivened the decoration, catching the light and adding an impressive three-dimensional quality. The ornaments, as with pearls, could simply be assembled and sewn into place and did not therefore demand the services of skilled embroiderers. Rather, they involved goldsmiths to create them in specially carved moulds, drawing these craftsmen into the large embroidery workshops. Also catching the light in embroideries were “doublets” — tiny discs of glass of a type still seen in Indian embroideries — which appear to have come from Venice.

Countless similar examples are described in both the English and French royal accounts of the fourteenth century, none of which, sadly, have survived. For the Christmas and New Year festivities in 1393-4, two gloriously extravagant and light-hearted concoctions of this kind were created for Richard II: a white satin doublet embroidered in gold with orange trees on which hung one hundred silver-gilt oranges, and a “hancelyn” (believed to be a loose outer garment), also of white satin which was embroidered with leeches, water and rocks, and amongst which were placed fifteen silver-gilt mussels and fifteen silver-gilt whelks. How these must all have sparkled in the subdued lighting of the medieval royal halls. Late medieval taste was particularly attracted to light-reflecting ornaments on clothing and horse-harness where movement would produce a multitude of glinting reflections. Consequently gold and silver motifs of all shapes and sizes were incorporated into embroidery. In 1441 the Goldsmiths Company confirmed and renewed their Ordinance for Making Spangles which fixed prices. These “spangles” were the equivalent of modern sequins, mall, round, thin pieces of glittering metal with a hole in the centre to admit a thread; some were rectangular in shape and sewn at one end only, whilst ohers survive in situ on embroideries but a number have turned up in archaeological contexts, perhaps the small lost hoards of people in flight from invaders.

15th Century: Kreuzlingen Mitre

The monastery Kreuzlingen was founded around 1125 by the Constance Bishop Ulrich I as Augustinian Monastery. The Mitra, a magnificent goldsmith work with translucent enamels and elaborate beadwork, now in the inventory of the Historical Museum Thurgau in Frauenfeld, is so far attributed to the Abbot Erhard Lind.

Legend has it that Pope John XXIII. as a gift on the occasion of an overnight stay of the Pope and his more than 600-member allegiance in the monastery Kreuzlingen on October 27, 1414 on the way to the Constance Council to the Abbot handed over.

The Mitra is an exquisite late medieval goldsmith’s work of outstanding importance. It will be presented for the first time after the restoration in 2014 at the Constance Council outside the premises of the Historisches Museum Thurgau. In collaboration with the scientific management and textile restorers of the Abegg Foundation, the Competence Center for Textile Restoration in Riggisberg, the showpiece will be extensively examined and conserved art historically and art-technologically.

Text via: http://hj-bleier.de/projekte-metallrestaurierung/kreuzlingen-mitra-15-jh/


14th Century: Chausable Edging

Photo credit: valdovurumai.lt


Bona Sforza’s gift of a chasuble sewn with pieces of a 13th to 14th-century Byzantine-style crown that is sometimes associated with the Lithuanian rulers (Skarbiec Paulinów na Jasnej Górze, Częstochowa)

14th Century Stole (detail)

16th Century: Russian Mitre

Mitra ШИТЬЕ/Митра Век: XVI-XVII Место хранения: Государственный музей искусств Грузии Размер: 28,5 х 19,5 Edit
Mitra SHIT'Ye/Mitra Vek: XVI-XVII Mesto khraneniya: Gosudarstvennyy muzey iskusstv Gruzii Razmer: 28,5 kh 19,5

Mitra SEAT / Mitra Century: XVI-XVII Location: State Museum of Art of Georgia Size: 28.5 x 19.5

14th Century: Cope


In German: Seidenkasel mit perlbesticktem Krenz Siede: Italien (?), 2 Halfte 13 Jh.,

Krenz: Niedersachsen (Braunschwieg), 3 Viertel 15 Jh.

Pictures: “Stadt im Wandel: Kunst und Kultur des Bürgetums
in Norddeutchland 1150-1650”

15th Century: Coral Chausable

Picture: Art Institute of Chicago

Chasuble, 1601/75

Silk, warp-float faced satin weave; underlaid with linen, plain weave; embroidered with linen, silk, gilt-metal strips, and gilt-metal-strip-wrapped silk in satin and split stitches; laid work, couching, padded couching; beaded with coral beads; edged with gilt-metal strip and gilt-metal-strip-wrapped silk, twill and plain weaves; lined with silk, plain weave
113.5 x 66.8 cm (44 5/8 x 26 1/4 in.)


14th Century: San Lorenzo Mitre

BeadedMitre-fullMitre – Cathedral of San Lorenzo at Scala/Ravello – Southern Italian Goldsmiths – 13th-14th century – Red silk with pearls and golden plates with enamelled Apostles – Angevin Naples – Temporary exhibition – Museum of the Treasure of Saint January in Naples

Color Pictures via flickr user *Karl* – clicking will take you to the pic

14th Century: Marienwerder Cope

372559191_8348dbf779_oMarienwerder Cope

Pretty sure this is the back of a priest’s cope, as they almost always have a cross on the back.

13th Century: Halberstadt Mitre

12th Century Halberstadt Catherdral Mitre

Info from : http://www.lda-lsa.de

A mitra with animal symbolism from the Halberstadt cathedral treasure

The bishop’s headdress from the Halberstadt cathedral treasure embroidered on the most sumptuous of pearls impressively demonstrates the magnificence of the medieval church service as well as the great craftsmanship of contemporary textile art. The Mitra is almost completely preserved except for two formerly hanging on the back, wide bands and looks amazingly fresh in the color of the jewelry elements. In addition to gilded jewelery sheets and colored stones in golden versions, the variety of small pearls made of red coral, colorful glass flows and gilded metal and combined with river pearls is particularly impressive.

For a long time it was thought that these pearls were imported. However, there is evidence that freshwater pearl mussels were more abundant in native waters before being almost completely eradicated by depletion in the 18th century. Therefore, for the Lower Saxony beadwork – to which the Mitra belongs – pearls from the provenances of the Lüneburg Heath may well have been used.

The background for the beadwork, which is embroidered on pattern-precise parchment, is a thin gold foil. The two decorative bands, called Circulus and Titulus, are particularly broad and elaborate on this Miter . Horizontally, the Mitra move around many entwined tendrils with vine leaves, into which two quadruple-shaped medallions are integrated on the front and back. In miniature they depict representations of medieval animal symbolism, which was recorded in the compendium of the Physiologus, which has been immensely popular since early Christian times: On the detail illustration of the obverse, an eagle flies out of its nest with a young bird in its capture.

In the interpretation of salvation history, the eagle Christ immediately approaches the sun, the symbol of God, to whom he feeds a human child. In the neighboring medallion, the pelican, animating and nurturing the young with his blood, is shown. On the opposite side, the Phoenix rises from its ashes with its wings spread wide , and a lion bends over its still-born, unbroken boy to bring it to life with his breath . All four motifs are allegories of the resurrection of Christ and symbolize the Christian hope of the resurrection of the dead. This central content of faith finds a visible expression in a special way in the celebration of Easter, for which occasion the precious miter was probably determined.

Text: Dorothee Honekamp-Könemann
Internet: Dorothee Menke


13th Century: Orphrey, 1220-1224

In some sources this pointed orphrey end is often paired with two bead saints heads, from the same museum since they are similar in time frame, and materials. Since they are not from the same piece I am seperating them.

V&A Accession number 8274-1863 | Item page @ V&A

All but the first picture were taken by myself, Jen Segrest.