Mitre | Russia; Moscow | 1595
Damask cloth, silver, satin, gold threads, silk threads, pearls | The Kremlin State Historical & Cultural Museums
Belonged to Patriarch Job (1585-1605)
The O’Dea Mitre, ca. 1420. Made in Dublin, the name of the artist is engraved – Thomas O’Carryd, artifex faciens. The infulae or pendants appear to have suffered much as they are devoid of most of the ornaments that once adorned them. This image is the property of the Dean and Chapter of Limerick Cathedral.
BASILIKA MARIAZELL CHASUBLE
Austria, about 1470 Pilgrimage Church of Mariazell, Styria
Treasury Height: 129 cm.
Height of the detail: 43 cm.
Cross Orphrey with the Virgin, Saints Barbara and Dorothy and, at the sides, Saints Catherine and Ursula. Relief embroidery with gold brocade, pearls, gold thread and silk. The Child, and the faces and hands, in silk, in satin and stem stitch. Background of couched gold threads.
Color photos courtesy: Basilika Mariazell, via Tina M Comroe
B/W photos: Schuette, Marie and Sigrid Muller-Christensen: Pictorial History of Embroidery ; NY: Frederick Praeger, 1964.
|Information provided by Basilika Mariazell||English translation: (Google)|
Kasten 3, Lade 1
Entstehungszeit: 4. Viertel des15. Jhdt.Thema:
A. Kasel, rotText:
1. Größe: Rückenteil:135 cm x 81 cm Vorderteil: 105 cm x 80cm Schulternaht
2. Grundgewebe: im VT und in den Seitenteilen des RT siehe
Lampas, lanciert in Gold; viele Stückelnähte im Grund Kettatlas mit GK
rote Seide und GS rosa Seide; Musterung: Schußatlas mit BK und LS
und Flottierungen des LS, BK: rote Seide, LS: Goldlahn glatt Motive: typ.
Granatapfelmusterung des späten 15.Jhdt.: reihig versetzt angeordnet
spitzlagige Granatapfelmotive, umrahmt von Nelken und kleinen
Ornamenten; umschlungen werden die Granatäpfel von gebündelten
Girlanen aus Eichenlaub mit Eichelfrüchten, Pinien, geschlossenen
Granatäpfeln und Akanthusblättern;
3. Musterung: Reliefstickerei im Kreuz
Stickgrund im Kreuz: leinwandbiniges Gewebe – siehe
Dokumentation Fr.Macho, BDA Arsenal Technik und Material: Gold-,
Perlen- und Seidenstickerei siehe Bericht Dr. Koller und
Dokumentation Fr. Macho, BDA
Motive: figurale Darstellungen in reich verzierten
Architekturbaldachinen (Gottesmutter mit Kind, Hl. Katharina, Hl.
Ursula, Hl. Barabara, Hl. Dorothea); gestickte Borte siehe Bericht Dr.
4. Borten: gestickte Borten am Kreuz
5. Bänder: keine; sondern Schlaufen, die nur tw. erhalten sind: in
Knopflochstich mit roter Seide; Knöpfe fehlen
6. Futter: rosafarbenes Leinengewebe, LW
Bezeichnung: – Tinte: Schrift im Original erhalten “Augspurg “
mit stilisiert dargestelltem Augsburger Stadtwappen (Pinienzapfen):
Kreis mit aufgesetztem Dach
Alte Inv. Nr.: 1.P 49-97
Alte Inventarnummern: Basilika: Nr. keine,
Gerhard Rodler : Nr. 59
Bermerkung: Experten geben als Entstehungszeit dieser Kasel das
späte 15.Jhdt. an; damit können die Angaben von Gerhard Rodler
über König Ludwig von Ungarn als Spender, ca. 1370, nicht stimmen.
Die Kasel wurde für die Präsentation bei der Landesausstellung in der
Location: South Treasury, Box 3, drawer 1
Date of origin: 4th quarter of 15th Century
Topic: A. Chasuble, red
Text: A. Chasuble
1.Size: back part: 135 cm x 81 cm front part: 105 cm x 80 cm shoulder seam
2. Base fabric: in the VT and in the side parts of the RT see Documentation
Fr.Ing.Klein Lampas launched in gold; many piece seams in the basic chain atlas with GK red silk and GS pink silk;
Pattern: shot atlas with BK and LS and floats of the LS, BK: red silk, LS: Goldlahn smooth motifs: typ.
Pomegranate pattern from the late 15th century: staggered in rows Pointed pomegranate motifs framed by cloves and small ones Ornaments; the pomegranates are embraced by bundled Giraffes made of oak leaves with acorns, pine trees, closed Pomegranates and acanthus leaves;
3. Pattern: Relief embroidery in the cross Embroidery base in the cross: plain weave – see Documentation Fr.Macho, BDA Arsenal
Technology and material: gold, Pearl and silk embroidery see report by Dr. Koller and Documentation Ms. Macho, BDA
Motifs: figural representations in richly decorated Architectural canopies (Mother of God with Child, St. Catherine, St. Ursula, St. Barabara, St. Dorothea); embroidered border see report by Dr. Rage 4.
Trims: embroidered trims on the cross 5. Ribbons: none; but loops that only tw. are preserved: in Buttonhole stitch with red silk; Buttons are missing 6. Lining: pink linen fabric, LW
Designation: – Ink: The original text “Augspurg” has been preserved with stylized depicted Augsburg city arms (pine cones): Circle with the roof on Remarks: Old inv. No .: 1.P 49-97 Old inventory numbers:
Basilica: No. none,
Gerhard Rodler: No. 59
Note: Experts give this as the time this chasuble was created late 15th century at; thus the information from Gerhard Rodler about King Ludwig of Hungary as donor, ca.1370, not to vote. The chasuble was made for presentation at the state exhibition in the Styria restored in Mariazell in 1996 (cross with Relief embroidery by Fr. Macho, BDA workshops, Arsenal; Pomegranate fabric and lining fabric by freelance workers
Textile restorers: Ms. Ing.Gabriele Klein and Ms. Ing. Tina Lindner).
Report from Dr. Koller: Exhibition catalog of the LA 1996 in Mariazell “Treasure and Destiny” Pages 133 – 144
Documentation Fr. Macho located in the BDA, Arsenal Vienna Documentation Fr. Ing.
Klein was written as part of the restoration and is located in the study gallery of the Mariazell basilica Condition:
Not suitable for liturgical use! very good after the restoration
Netherlands, Brussels (?), second and third quarter of the 15th century
Vienna, Schatzkammer A complete set for a chapel:
two hangings for the altar, i.e. frontal and dossal (Frontier, Dossier).
Both 117 x 327 cm; chasuble, 147 x 131 cm; dalmatic and tuncile, both 154 x 125 cm; three large copes, each 164 x 330 cm Stout linen ground. The frames of the pictorial panels are of red velvet with gold bands. Embroidery in gold thread, pearls, topazes, sapphires. Coloured silks in a great variety of shades; red, bluish, pink, brownish red, carmine, flame red, blue in various shades, apple green shading to olive green, ochre, lilac, violet, greyish brown, and various shot tones. Or nue’; heads and hands in needle painting; split and satin stitches and couched work. Each of the panels were then sewn together and framed with the gold borders. Extraordinarily good state of preservation. The age of the work is apparent only in the occasional detachment of the embroidery from the background, some loose threads and very slight losses of pearls.
A 15th-century mitra preciosa that was commissioned by Pope Leo X. From the treasury of Montecassino.
From: “Medieval Craftsmen: Embroiderers,” by Kay Staniland, University of Toronto Press, 1991, pp. 46-48. ISBN: 0-8020-6915-0
Elaborate medieval embroideries were often further enhanced by the addition of pearls and other precious and semi-precious stones, gold or silver ornaments, enameled plaques or, very occasionally at this period, glass beads or discs, whilst some are almost exclusively composed of these ornaments and might not properly be considered as embroideries. These powerful symbols of class and wealth were at least as widely seen in the church as in royal or aristocratic courts: many of these rich creations were the gift of wealthy patrons seeking influence or favors. However, it would eventually be this very enrichment which ensured the destruction of these pieces, for once the gold, jewels, and pearls were removed, the ground would quickly be recycled. So much of this work has disappeared that it can now be difficult to envisage the extravagance involved, though the imagination is aided by fifteenth-century paintings which, with their naturalistic and precise approach, frequently portray these jewel-enriched garments. Coupled with the boldly designed and colored Italian silks and velvets the effect must indeed have been sumptuous and impressive.
Pearls were very popular in the Middle Ages, especially tiny seed pearls, which were much used in place of jewels in crowns, or to form haloes, birds, masks, or other decorative motifs. English royal accounts of the fourteenth century reveal that these pearls cost between £1 and £2 per ounce. Together with a range of other, larger pearls, some colored, originating from the East or from Scotland, they were frequently employed upon festal or jousting garments at the French and English courts and often massed together to form decorative motifs. In 1345-9, for example, Edward III’s armourer John de Cologne made five hoods of white cloth for the King and his friends, each worked with blue dancing men and fastening at the front with buttons of large pearls. They required 2350 large pearls, together with velvet, silk and gold thread. These richly embroidered hoods were fashionable at the time and there are many entries listing the expensive requirements for them.
The mitre from Minden, a rare and almost complete survival from the Middle Ages, shows the technique used in an ecclesiastical context, combined with plaques and golden ornaments, whilst the single mask and few acorns of pearls still in place on the Butler-Bowden cope show something of the original richness of the embroideries.
The incorporation of gold ornaments similarly enlivened the decoration, catching the light and adding an impressive three-dimensional quality. The ornaments, as with pearls, could simply be assembled and sewn into place and did not therefore demand the services of skilled embroiderers. Rather, they involved goldsmiths to create them in specially carved moulds, drawing these craftsmen into the large embroidery workshops. Also catching the light in embroideries were “doublets” — tiny discs of glass of a type still seen in Indian embroideries — which appear to have come from Venice.
Countless similar examples are described in both the English and French royal accounts of the fourteenth century, none of which, sadly, have survived. For the Christmas and New Year festivities in 1393-4, two gloriously extravagant and light-hearted concoctions of this kind were created for Richard II: a white satin doublet embroidered in gold with orange trees on which hung one hundred silver-gilt oranges, and a “hancelyn” (believed to be a loose outer garment), also of white satin which was embroidered with leeches, water and rocks, and amongst which were placed fifteen silver-gilt mussels and fifteen silver-gilt whelks. How these must all have sparkled in the subdued lighting of the medieval royal halls. Late medieval taste was particularly attracted to light-reflecting ornaments on clothing and horse-harness where movement would produce a multitude of glinting reflections. Consequently gold and silver motifs of all shapes and sizes were incorporated into embroidery. In 1441 the Goldsmiths Company confirmed and renewed their Ordinance for Making Spangles which fixed prices. These “spangles” were the equivalent of modern sequins, mall, round, thin pieces of glittering metal with a hole in the centre to admit a thread; some were rectangular in shape and sewn at one end only, whilst ohers survive in situ on embroideries but a number have turned up in archaeological contexts, perhaps the small lost hoards of people in flight from invaders.
The monastery Kreuzlingen was founded around 1125 by the Constance Bishop Ulrich I as Augustinian Monastery. The Mitra, a magnificent goldsmith work with translucent enamels and elaborate beadwork, now in the inventory of the Historical Museum Thurgau in Frauenfeld, is so far attributed to the Abbot Erhard Lind.
Legend has it that Pope John XXIII. as a gift on the occasion of an overnight stay of the Pope and his more than 600-member allegiance in the monastery Kreuzlingen on October 27, 1414 on the way to the Constance Council to the Abbot handed over.
The Mitra is an exquisite late medieval goldsmith’s work of outstanding importance. It will be presented for the first time after the restoration in 2014 at the Constance Council outside the premises of the Historisches Museum Thurgau. In collaboration with the scientific management and textile restorers of the Abegg Foundation, the Competence Center for Textile Restoration in Riggisberg, the showpiece will be extensively examined and conserved art historically and art-technologically.
Bona Sforza’s gift of a chasuble sewn with pieces of a 13th to 14th-century Byzantine-style crown that is sometimes associated with the Lithuanian rulers (Skarbiec Paulinów na Jasnej Górze, Częstochowa)
Mitra SHIT'Ye/Mitra Vek: XVI-XVII Mesto khraneniya: Gosudarstvennyy muzey iskusstv Gruzii Razmer: 28,5 kh 19,5
Mitra SEAT / Mitra Century: XVI-XVII Location: State Museum of Art of Georgia Size: 28.5 x 19.5
Picture: Art Institute of Chicago
Silk, warp-float faced satin weave; underlaid with linen, plain weave; embroidered with linen, silk, gilt-metal strips, and gilt-metal-strip-wrapped silk in satin and split stitches; laid work, couching, padded couching; beaded with coral beads; edged with gilt-metal strip and gilt-metal-strip-wrapped silk, twill and plain weaves; lined with silk, plain weave
113.5 x 66.8 cm (44 5/8 x 26 1/4 in.)
Mitre – Cathedral of San Lorenzo at Scala/Ravello – Southern Italian Goldsmiths – 13th-14th century – Red silk with pearls and golden plates with enamelled Apostles – Angevin Naples – Temporary exhibition – Museum of the Treasure of Saint January in Naples
Color Pictures via flickr user *Karl* – clicking will take you to the pic
Pretty sure this is the back of a priest’s cope, as they almost always have a cross on the back.
Info from : http://www.lda-lsa.de
A mitra with animal symbolism from the Halberstadt cathedral treasure
The bishop’s headdress from the Halberstadt cathedral treasure embroidered on the most sumptuous of pearls impressively demonstrates the magnificence of the medieval church service as well as the great craftsmanship of contemporary textile art. The Mitra is almost completely preserved except for two formerly hanging on the back, wide bands and looks amazingly fresh in the color of the jewelry elements. In addition to gilded jewelery sheets and colored stones in golden versions, the variety of small pearls made of red coral, colorful glass flows and gilded metal and combined with river pearls is particularly impressive.
For a long time it was thought that these pearls were imported. However, there is evidence that freshwater pearl mussels were more abundant in native waters before being almost completely eradicated by depletion in the 18th century. Therefore, for the Lower Saxony beadwork – to which the Mitra belongs – pearls from the provenances of the Lüneburg Heath may well have been used.
The background for the beadwork, which is embroidered on pattern-precise parchment, is a thin gold foil. The two decorative bands, called Circulus and Titulus, are particularly broad and elaborate on this Miter . Horizontally, the Mitra move around many entwined tendrils with vine leaves, into which two quadruple-shaped medallions are integrated on the front and back. In miniature they depict representations of medieval animal symbolism, which was recorded in the compendium of the Physiologus, which has been immensely popular since early Christian times: On the detail illustration of the obverse, an eagle flies out of its nest with a young bird in its capture.
In the interpretation of salvation history, the eagle Christ immediately approaches the sun, the symbol of God, to whom he feeds a human child. In the neighboring medallion, the pelican, animating and nurturing the young with his blood, is shown. On the opposite side, the Phoenix rises from its ashes with its wings spread wide , and a lion bends over its still-born, unbroken boy to bring it to life with his breath . All four motifs are allegories of the resurrection of Christ and symbolize the Christian hope of the resurrection of the dead. This central content of faith finds a visible expression in a special way in the celebration of Easter, for which occasion the precious miter was probably determined.
Text: Dorothee Honekamp-Könemann
Internet: Dorothee Menke
In some sources this pointed orphrey end is often paired with two bead saints heads, from the same museum since they are similar in time frame, and materials. Since they are not from the same piece I am seperating them.
All but the first picture were taken by myself, Jen Segrest.
“Manipel”, First half of 13th Cen.
In German: Auf dem Mittlestreifen der goldborte finden sich, jeweils paarweise, Vierfüßler, Vogel, baumchen bzh, palmetten, seitlich davon schmale streifen mit Kette aus Rauten – und Winkenhakenformen in gold auf grunbzh. Viloett.
Rechts und links außen steht in Versakein: O SPES DIVINA VIA TUTA POTENS MEDICINA PORRIGE SUBSIDIUM
MISERIS O SANTA MARIA PROTOGE SALVA BENEDIC SANCTIFICA
Closeups are from my Visit to the V&A visit, read notes here.