13th Century: Ciborium/Ziborium (Host Box)

chalice-lgBeaded container for the Holy Host

Second half of the 13th Century
In german: Ziborium mit perlstickerei, Niedersachen, 2, Halfte 13 JH

Schnutgen Museum, Köln (Cologne) Germany

Some Color Pictures from “Stadt im Wandel: Kunst und Kultur des Bürgetums in Norddeutchland 1150-1650”
Some pictures from: https://www.bildindex.de/document/obj05071467?medium=rba_c005536
Some photos are copyright courtesy the most gracious Racaire at www.racaire.com

17th Century: Beadwoven Panel (1657)

Panel Made in 1657

In the collections at the V&A, London, not on display.

ARTIST/MAKER
Unknown
PLACE OF ORIGIN
England (made)

Coloured and transparent glass beads threaded together on silk

OBJECT DETAILS

CATEGORY
Textiles
OBJECT TYPE
Panel
MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
glass beads threaded onto silk ground
Glass Beads
Silk
BRIEF DESCRIPTION
beaded, 1657, English; Coloured beads, floral decoration with inscription
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
Coloured and transparent glass beads threaded together on silk
DIMENSIONS
  • Height: 16.5cm
  • Width: 31cm
  • Unmounted depth: 0.5cm
MARKS AND INSCRIPTIONS
Naturs flowers soon doe fade ful long we last cause art us made ARW 1657

14th Century: Cheb Antependium

 


Antipendium (altar hanging) of Cathderal/Chapel of Cheb*
Approx. 1300 AD.

Okay, I freely admit I’m extremely interested in this piece since it seems to have stayed in the very cathedral/town where it was made, and lived, and is still in such great shape. I have some research on Cheb and these locations mentioned in the plate descriptions, see it after the pictures below.

Four pictures from Jessica Grimm who has this blog entry, that you must really go to as she has done a great write up on it.

*also known as Eger (see note after plate description) Dimensions: 88cm x 228cm. Museum der stadt Cheb, Czechoslovakia.
SOURCE: “La Riqueza del Bordado Eclesiastico en Checoslovaquia”, by Zoroslava Drobna, 1949

Plate info in spanish:
Antipendium bordado con abalorios multicolores (perlitas de cristal) y con coralitos rosáceos. En dos filas, una encima de la otra, que constan de diez arcadas semicirculares, tiene colocadas las figuras de la Vírgen María, de Cristo, de santos y de santas. En su parte superior consta de una tira o franja, en la cual se hallan sobrepuestas o aplicadas cabezas, pintadas y más recientes, de santos y una tira con una inscripción mulitada por restauraciones posteriores. las figuras y las arcadas han sido borodadas sobre pergamino, borado que años más tarde ha aplicado o cosido sobre una tela de seda roja. Probablemente ha sido confeccionado por las monjas del convento de Santa Clara de Cheb para la cahilla del castillo de Cheb. Proximiades del año 1300 Dimensiones 88cmx228cm Museo Municipal de Cheb.

Plate info in English – to the best of my talents and using an online translator:
Altar hanging embroidered with multicolored glass beads (glass pearls?) and with rosaceous coralitos. In two rows, one upon the other of ten semicircular arches around the figures of the Virgin Maria, Christ, saints. In the top part it consists of a border which has overlapping or applied heads, painted and more recent, of saints and a strip with an inscription mutilated by later restorations. The figures and the arches have been embroidered on parchment, embroidered over years and applied or sewn on red silk fabric. Probably was made by the nuns of the convent of Saint Klara of Cheb for chapel of the castle of Cheb. Approx. 1300 AD. Dimensions 88cm x 228cm. City Museum of Cheb, (Czechoslovakia.)

 

RESEARCH ON THIS PIECE’S ORIGINS

Notes About Cheb, Czech Republic: during the Middle Ages, and even into fairly modern times, Cheb (which is directly on the modern German/Czech border) has changed hands to and from Germany many times. Map of modern Czech Bohemian Province: Cheb can be seen almost extreme right, junst under the little finger section that shoots into Germany, right along the border. Youc an see how this could have changed hands many times. (another map has Cheb clearly marked extreme west point of Czech.)As a result, Germany calls it Eger and Czechoslovakia calls is Cheb.

You will see this listed more often as being from “Eger (Cheb)” more than “Cheb” alone. To make this even more confusing – There is also a Eger, Hungary It’s made my researching this piece a bit difficult, added to that all, Czechoslovakia was called “Bohemia” in period. Here is a period map of Cheb when it was Eger, Germany – the chapel of St. Klara is clearly marked in the high res pic entitled “De germania, Egrana ciuitas, olimde imperio Romanorum hodie uero regno Bohemiae subiecta”That last link calls Cheb “Located on Ohre river near the German border; town fell to Bohemian king Otakar I in 13th cen.; was often damaged by war, including in Hussite wars (1419-1436), Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) & War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748). ”

The Czech.cz history page, mentions German Colonization inthe 13th Century. Now, Locating the piece’s orgin in Cheb (Then named “Eger”):The plate description above says this was: “Probably was made by the nuns of the convent of Saint Klara of Cheb for chapel of the castle of Cheb.” Let’s break this down.

You can see some of these Cheb locations, as they stand now that are mentioned above, at Cheb’s Wepage and the above map link which I think shows them in period as well. So does this page.

The convent was founded as a Franciscan church, and functioned as such for a couple hundred years, but converted to a Minorite (“Minores”) order in the 1500’s – which is whwen this map was made. (go about half way across) *right* next to the what we conclude to be the very Convent of St Klara (“S:Klara”) Cheb’s page even notes the order change: “Franciscan church: The Minorite church was built simultaneously with a convent after 1247 when Franciscans settled in Cheb. A vestry and adjacent portion of walling has been preserved from the original building from the mid-13th Century. A cloister of the convent from the 1st half of the 14th Century is one of the most beautiful landmarks in the town’s historical center.” So we know it was there at the right time, and we know it’s still there. Now, If you look at the modern pic of the Minorite churchand the period map of Cheb when it was Eger, Germany, you can see a definite resemblance of the modern and to the towers of “S:Klara” and the adjacent”Minores” in the map, which would be the Minorite Church.

In the 15th Century a bunch of Franciscan monasteries converted sub order called Minorite, who I thinks were a little more conservative, even more than the “Poor Clare’s” who were founded by St Clare and who’s tenants included strict cloistering away from the world and devout poverty.

We know that the the Convent of St Klara was adjacendt to the “Minorite” church from the map. We’re at the very least in the right area of town, and it’s really cool to at least see in period where it came from, if it is from where they say.

John Moorman, MEDIEVAL FRANCISCAN HOUSES, St. Bonaventure (NY): The Franciscan Institute, 1983:[page 169:] FRANCISCAN FRIARY AT “EGER (Cheb): Franciscan Province of Saxony or Bohemia, Leipzig.”Before 1256 (AFH v, 362). In 1270 the town was burnt down, including the church of the friars. Four friars and ten others were burnt to death in the church (AF ii, 83). It became Observant in due course, but the date of this is uncertain. Some say 1463 (“Beiträge Sächs. 1907, 9); others give 1465 (AFH v, 362) or 1472 (FS i, 239).”[page 582] POOR CLARES at Eger “Founded c. 1270 being built next to the friars’ convent (AFH v, 362-3). Some put the date as 1264 and say that the house was affiliated to Seusslitz (S. Chiara 438). In 1465 some sisters were sent from Nuremberg to carry out reforms (AF ii, 417-8).”Abbesses: “c. 1270: Adelheit von Lobhaus (Wauer, Entstehung 141n); 1469: Felicity Trautmann (AF ii, 418, 477); 1469 Margaret Grunther (Priorissa) AFii, 418, 477)”

And who was it made for?
It says in the plate description… ” …for chapel of the castle of Cheb” (again, it was Eger)Cheb’s page shows them too. Here’s the castle and here’s the castle’s chapel interior (and A detail picture). Here’s a modern Map of Cheb , you an see the castle (#4) up in the the northern bend of the river.
#8 is the convent.
#3 is where the piece lives now, the Musem of Cheb.

The Beads: Where did they come from?

Cheb is located less than 40 Kilometers from the small bavarian town of Bischofsgrun, Germany, which is just a few miles on the other side of the modern Czech/German Border.Bischofsgrun is important in many ways. It is one of the first glassmaking capitols in that part of Europe. A “glass hut” (translation from web) was found dating from 900. “Bischofesgrune” was first mentioned in 1242. The tradition of glass-making was first mentioned in 1340 (*1). by 1536 they had 39 glass houses (*2). Duke Albrecht V requested the court cartographer to a map of Bavaria in 1554-1561. In it he included the desctiption as: “Here there are many Glassworks, (producing) blown glass, exceptional mirror glass, and glass beads.” (*3). Modernly Bischofsgrun is famed for it’s history as a medieval stained glass center, and is part of many “glass tours” for those who study glass history. I think it’s a good possibility the beads may have come from Bischofsgrun, or even perhaps there was an even closer factory. Glass makers were considered a reputable and desirable industry.

(*1).source: Bischofsgrun, Germany glass tour website
(*2) source: Bischofsgrun, Germany website
(*3) source: Sibyll Jorgstaff, Glass Beads Of EuropeNEW Text about Cheb History: Following text from this page on Cheb:

The history of Cheb, one of Bohemia’s oldest towns, dates from the 9th century. The remains of a Slavonic settlement have been found on the site of todays castle, in its strategic location above the Ohre river. The first reference to Cheb was in a document by Germany king Heinrich IV., in 1061. The town was then called Egre, derived from “Agara”, the Celtic name of the river running through it and taken into German as “Eger”. The Czech name goes back at least to 1322. During the 12th century, Cheb came under the administration of the margraves of Vohburg and German colonization followed. In 1149, Cheb came under the House of Hohenstauf. Friedrich Barbarossa, the emperor and the most significant member of the family, made Cheb a stronghold of his power politics aimed against the Principality of Bohemia. Czech rulers, however, also proved interested in the regions strategic location. Using the claim to inheritance as a pretext, Premysl Otakar II invaded the once Slavonic territory in 1266 and temporarily annexed it to Bohemia. Until 1305 the region was administered by Vaclav II, Otakars son, who gained control over it as part of the dowry of his wife Guta, a daughter of the Emperor Rudolph of Hapsburg. Although the town was repeatedly taken by the German Empire after Vaclavs death, the inhabitants of Cheb maintained good relations with Bohemia and, after the Premyslid dynasty, became growingly concerned about stability. The permanent annexation of Cheb to the Bohemian Crown Lands came in 1322. John of Luxembourg, the Czech king, acquired the region from Ludwig the Bavarian as a hereditary pledge in recognition of service in the fight for the Emperors throne.

In the 14th century, Cheb was one of the leading towns in the kingdom, being the fourth biggest in Bohemia with a population of 7300. It received many privileges: the Golden Bull made Cheb inhabitants free of duties and tolls throughout the Empire, they had a provincial parliament, a provincial high court, and the minting right (1235). An important trade route, the Via Regia, led through town. During the Hussite wars, the town sided with Catholics and was the point of departure for the 1421 and 1427 crusades. History records the diplomatic negotiations of the Basel Ecclesiastic Council and the Hussites over the conditions of the latters attendance. Chebs faith in Jiri of Podebrady, the “Hussite” king, was confirmed not only by this many visits but also by his childrens weddings taking place in the town.

During the Thirty Years War, Cheb suffered attacks by Swedish, Saxon and imperial troops. The town went down in European history on the bloodstained date of 25 February 1634, when Albrecht of Wallenstein, the Emperors high commander, died at the hands of the Irish captain Deveroux.

Because of the war and the general decline of towns, the economy became stagnant. By a 1652 decree issued by Ferdinand III, Cheb was converted into a military fortress. When completed in 1740, however, the mighty Baroque structure was outdated and challenge to French troops laying siege two years later. An imperial contract brought leading Baroque architects to Cheb: K.Dienzenhofer, P.Bayer, G.Alliprandi, A.Pfeffer and others. Thanks to them the town boasts some marvelous buildings, e.g. St Clares Church, the Dominican monastery, the town hall, etc. The towns appearance was dramatically changed by the early 19th century. The fortifications were pulled down and a large part of the original Gothic town wall together with the gates was demolished. And still another event, deprived Cheb of its medieval features: the great fire of 1809. It destroyed more than 100 houses. Chebs oldest church, St John the Baptist, included.

Industrial development brought revival, in both economy and culture. In 1938, came the Munich agreement, followed by World War II. The ultimate displacement of German residents, eventually depopulated Chebs historical center, accelerating a catastrophic decay of monuments. Only resolute refurbishment put an end to such dilapidation (1956-1969). Since 1989 Cheb has become a notable culture and bussines center. International activities, like Euroregio Egrensis, have restored the tradition, and the unique character of the region.

13th Century: Halberstadt Antependium

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Some pics below from: http://fraubevin.blogspot.com

13th Century: Halberstadt Antependium

 german12thAltar frontal of the high altar of Halberstadt Cathedral

Lower Saxony, second half of the 13th century, Halberstadt, Cathedral Museum, No. 203
Throne: about 58 cm high

Detail. Red satin faded to old rose. Bead embroidery on parchment and linen. Coral and glass beads of cylindrical and spherical form, opaque and transparent. Predominant colors: coral red, two shades of green, dark blue shading, to light blue, turquoise, aubergine (i.e. eggplant purple), gold, black.

All the seed pearls and most of the violet glass beads and the gilded plaques are now missing. The outer edge and inner fields of the throne had metal plaques with Romanesque foliage and palmettes (their imprints remain on the material). The effect of the whole is impaired by the white patches left where the seed pearls and gold plaques have disappeared.

Pictoral History of Embroidery, M. Schuette (Library of Congress # 64-13379) [Gestickte Bildteppiche des Mittelalters (in english: Art of Medieval Tapestry), Leipzig1930.] Frederick A. Praeger, Inc, Publisher, New York 1964, 64 University Place, New York 3, New York

17th Century: Hungarian wedding dress

WOMAN’S CORSET-BODICE AND SKIRT
Mid-17th Century
MAGYAR NEMZETI MÚZEUM
(Hungarian National Museum)
Budapest, Hungary

Earlier researches attributed the costume to Pál Esterházy’s (1635–1713) first wife Orsolya Esterházy (1641–1682) and later to his second wife Éva Thököly (1659–1716). The original owner can no longer be traced but the cut and the embroidery ascertain that either could have worn it at her wedding. Contrary to Western European customs, in Hungary later generations gladly donned the ornate costumes of their forebears on some festive occasion. The suite was restored by Mrs Sándor Borsi between 1969 and 1971.

The skirt and the attached bodice constitute an outstanding ensemble of old Hungarian costume, a harmonious alloy of the exotic oriental traditions of earlier centuries and elements of the fast-changing Western European fashions.

(Note from Jen: I’m going to guess the red beads are Coral, I have many such examples of coral beads from Germany in earlier centuries. I’m trying to find more on this.)

17th Century: purple velvet pouch

Purse of purple velvet, consisting of four pattes on which alternately the crowned monogram ‘DG’ or ‘ML’ or two entwined hands under a burning heart, embroidered with multicolored silk, gold thread, pearls, spangles and rubies, anonymous, c. 1600 – c. 1625

17th Century: Game Bag

Embroidered game bag: silk, silver, and gold on velvet (Dresden 1609)

17th Century: 1625-1650 Beaded bag

Small flat bag of coloured beads netted on a foundation of thick linen thread, and patterned with bird and flowers and inscribed ‘IN HOP ME HART DOTH REST’. With brown, green, white, yellow and blue beads. Lined with chamois leather. Above the beadwork is a band of material of green silk covered with a pale pink silk.

Link to item @ V&A

There is also a pink satin lining and pink ribbon handles. The pink silk and satin are probably later additions.

‘IN HOP ME HART DOTH REST’ (Inscribed in beadwork above the birds and flowers)

  • Width: 13cm
  • Length: 11.5cm
  • Width: 5.125in
  • Length: 4.5in

 

17th Century: 1662 Mirror

Looking glass or mirror, seven inches wide, in a wide frame with beadwork decoration arranged in two full-height verticals and two short horizontal panels

top and bottom. Yellow cord runs between the vertical and horizontal panels.

Design

In each corner a medallion containing a figure of a woman, one of them being Diana with a bow and dog, the others represented with a horse, an alligator, and a cock. In the upper rectangle are three seated women (possibly the three Fates spinning) with a naked recumbent man below. To the left is Venus with Cupid and a peacock and, above, her chariot drawn by a pair of doves. To the right is a clothed woman, possibly Charity, with three naked children. Below is a composition of flowers, birds and beasts. Along the upper edge the inscription: ‘IM6 6W2’. The sight and back edges of the frame are lined with tooled brown leather, worked in a geometric pattern.

2018 – in a modern glazed case

  • Height: 71.1cm
  • Width: 66cm (Note: Thickness of frame estimated at 4cm.)

H 2′ 4″ W 2′ 2″ 2018 In a modern glazed case 75 x 70 x 6.5cm
Link to V&A page

17th Century: 1659 Basket

Examples of beadwork that can be associated with makers whose names and dates are known suggest that they were usually made by teenage girls from affluent families. Their function is uncertain. They may have been used as layette baskets, which held baby clothes, because they are similar in form to silver examples. But it has also been suggested that they were made to celebrate betrothals or used at wedding ceremonies to hold gloves, sprigs of rosemary or other favours given to guests. Most examples depict a couple as the central motif. All of the design elements may be found in silk embroidery on domestic furnishings of the period.
Link to item @ V&A

Materials & Making
The basket is made from glass beads strung on linen thread and fine wire, supported on a wire frame lined with silk. Beadwork keeps true, clear colours, an advantage over coloured silks and wools, the usual materials for embroidery. A beaded cushion in the V&A dated 1657 bears the inscription ‘natvrs flowers soon doe fade ful long we last cavse art vs made’.

Ownership & Use
Another beaded basket of identical design exists, with only the name and date different. This suggests that it may have been worked from a type of kit, or possibly made to commission as a gift, with the recipient’s name added.

1659, English; Signed Sarah Gurnall
set with the maker or recipient’s name : sarah gvrnall avgvst 24 anno 1659

  • Height: 11cm
  • Width: 46.5cm
  • Depth: 36cm

17th Century: 1628 Beaded Bag

A number of beaded bags from the early 17th century survive. Their stylized floral patterns and less expensive materials imitate the elaborate embroidered versions carried by the aristocracy. Many bear mottos or expressions relating to charity, friendship or luck, which suggests that they may have been used for gifts of money.
Link to page @ V&A

Materials & Making
The development of the ‘drawn-glass’ technique about 1490 allowed the manufacture of large numbers of small, round, coloured beads with a central hole, of the type used in this purse. The glassworks on the island of Murano near Venice were the most famous during the Renaissance, but by the early 17th century the technology had spread to glass-making centres in Amsterdam and Bavaria. Beads were produced mainly for trade with North America and Africa, but they were also sold in Europe for use in embroidery.

Subjects Depicted
The expression ‘hit or miss’ is first recorded in the English language in William Shakespeare’s play Troilus and Cressida published in 1606, where it has the same meaning of random luck that it has today. The expression may have derived from a country dance also known as ‘hit and miss’, recorded as early as 1626.

Purse of brown glass beads on a ground of netted silk. With a diamond diaper pattern in blue and white beads with clusters of green and blue beads at the intersections. In each diamond a letter ‘S’ in dark blue beads is surrounded by white and yellow beads. Lined with leather and buff silk. Two tassels of buff silk ribbon at the bottom.

  • Height: 8.9cm
  • Width: 12.7cm
  • Depth: 1cm

17th Century: Beaded Casket

Casket

English ca. 1650-1660 (made)

Wooden casket decorated with panels of glass beads sewn onto a canvas ground. On the lid is a figure of Justice depicted with her attributes of sword and scales. On the sides are cupid and a seated lady, on the back a mermaid and swan. The casket has metal handles at the sides and a key in the centre front. There is a shallow drawer at the bottom of the front side. No other internal fittings remain.
  • Width: 270mm
  • Height: 155mm
  • Depth: 290mm

Link to Object @ the V&A

16th Century: Bostocke Sampler

 

 

All photos Copyright: © Victoria and Albert Museum, London 2017. All Rights Reserved

From the V&A page:

Linen sampler embroidered with silk and metal thread with pearls and beads.In the area above the inscription are the following motifs: an owl in a tree, a dog with collar and lead, a lion passant guardant, a chained and muzzled bear in a field of daisies, a tree with a squirrel and a pelican in her piety, a crouching hind, a spray of cowslips and a small dog with ‘IVNO’ above it. There are also three small motifs that have been unpicked, which appear to be a castle on an elephant, a squirrel cracking a nut, and a raven. All of these motifs are worked in cross stitch except for the large dog which is filled in with closely worked arrowhead stitch. There are also two tiny examples of metal thread interlacing in the top right corner. The rest of the sampler is filled with formal geometrical and floral repeating patterns. These are worked mainly in back stitch, but there are examples of work in more complicated stitches showing that the back stitch was intended to be a grounding for further elaboration. Other stitches include satin, chain, ladder, buttonhole and detached buttonhole filling, couching in patterns, coral, speckling, two-side Italian cross, bullion and French knots and beadwork. The colours are brown, greens, red, pink, blue, white and yellow.
Place of Origin England (made)

Date: 1598 (made)
Artist/maker: Bostocke, Jane (maker)
Materials and Techniques” Embroidered linen with coloured silk and metal threads, seed pearls and beads

Marks and inscriptions” ‘JANE BOSTOCKE 1598 / ALICE LEE WAS BORNE THE 23 OF NOVEMBER BE / ING TWESDAY IN THE AFTER NOONE 1596’
The lettering of the inscription is worked in back stitch with Algerian eye stitch punctuation except for the letters ‘BOSTOC’ which are worked in seed pearls over a back stitch foundation.

Dimensions Length: 42.6 cm, Width: 36.2 cm

Object history note: According to research published by Martyn Freeth (see bibliography), Alice Lee and Jane Bostocke were first cousins, both grandchildren of Thomas Lee (1500-62) of Langley and Jane Corbet of Moreton Corbet in Shropshire. The 3 motifs which have been unpicked are crests or badges from Jane’s side of the family, while those still in place are from Alice’s.

Descriptive line: Sampler of embroidered linen with coloured silk and metal threads, seed pearls and beads, made by Jane Bostocke, England, dated 1598.

Bibliographic References:
(Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no) Browne, Clare and Jennifer Wearden, eds. Samplers from the Victoria and Albert Museum. London : V&A Publications, 1999. 144 p., ill. ISBN 1851773096.
Clabburn, Pamela. Samplers. Princes Risborough : Shire Publications, 1998. ISBN 07478 0365 X, pp.7-9
Roach, Audrey. Secrets of the Sampler. Country Life, 1 May 2003
Tarrant, Naomi, ‘The Jane Bostocke Sampler’ in Shropshire Family History Society Journal vol.29 part 4, p.151
Freeth, Martyn, ‘The Bostocke Sampler – A postcript’ in Shropshire Family History Society Journal March 2009
King, Donald, The Earliest Dated Sampler (1598) : Jane Bostocke’s gift to Alice Lee, Connoisseur, CXLIX, 234 (1962)

Materials Linen; Silk; Metal thread; Pearls; Beads

Techniques Weaving; Embroidery

16th Century: Beaded Bag

Beaded leather bag, 1630s, British; inscribed ‘heare et is hit or miss’, acorn pattern

 

A number of beaded bags from the early 17th century survive. Their stylized floral patterns and less expensive materials imitate the elaborate embroidered versions carried by the aristocracy. Many bear mottos or expressions relating to charity, friendship or luck, which suggests that they may have been used for gifts of money. This example is inscribed ‘heare et is hit or miss’.

The development of the ‘drawn-glass’ technique about 1490 allowed the manufacture of large numbers of small, round, coloured beads with a central hole, of the type used in this purse. The glassworks on the island of Murano near Venice were the most famous during the Renaissance, but by the early 17th century the technology had spread to glass-making centres in Amsterdam and Bavaria. Beads were produced mainly for trade with North America and Africa, but they were also sold in Europe for use in embroidery.

The expression ‘hit or miss’ is first recorded in the English language in William Shakespeare’s play Troilus and Cressida published in 1606, where it has the same meaning of random luck that it has today. The expression may have derived from a country dance also known as ‘hit and miss’, recorded as early as 1626.

Text from: https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O74982/purse-unknown/http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O158778/bag-unknown/

Physical description: A flat, square leather bag, covered with red, white, green, yellow and blue glass beads in a repeating pattern of stylized acorns. It has silver thread loops, silk tassels and holes in the leather for a drawstring

Place of Origin: Great Britain (made)

Date: 1630-1639 (made)

Materials and Techniques: Kidskin, glass beads, linen thread, silk thread, silver thread; hand sewn, hand beaded

Dimensions: Length: 13.0 cm approx., bag only, Width: 14.6 cm approx., bag only

Beaded leather bag, 1630s, British; inscribed ‘heare et is hit or miss’, acorn pattern

Bibliographic References (Citation, Note/Abstract, NAL no): John Lea Nevinson, Catalogue of English Domestic Embroidery of the Sixteenth & Seventeenth Centuries, Victoria and Albert Museum, Department of Textiles, London: HMSO, 1938, p.100

Materials: Kidskin; Glass beads; Linen thread; Silk thread; Silver thread

16th Century: Beaded Book

Photograph of a precious 16th century embroidered prayer book with embroidered decorative binding in the collection of the Folger Shakespeare Library.

The rare book volume includes bible Psalms and the cover is embroidered with silver thread, gold thread, and tiny pearls.

From http://www.shakespearelibraryimages.com/stock_photography_images/folger-shakespeare-library-2/?pid=125

16th: Drawstring Bag

Pictures & info from: https://www.mfa.org/collections/object/drawstring-bag-119706

Drawstring bag
English
late 16th–early 17th century

Overall (without tassels and cord): 13.3 x 13 cm (5 1/4 x 5 1/8 in.

Silk satin emroidered with silk, gold metallic threads, metal purl, and seed pearls Braided silk and metallic cords and tassels

Small square drawstring bag. White silk satin embroidered with polychrome silk, gold metallic threads, metal purl, and seed pearls. Design of flower flanked by birds and cornicopias; floral motifs fill out ground. Stitches include laid and couching, scroll couching, satin stitch, raised work, and knots.

Salmon/white/metallic cords with two silk and metallic covered-wood tassels; three similar tassels at base. Pink silk lining. White satin is fraying at top and bottom to reveal vertical pink and green wefts.

15th Century: Portrait

Petrus Christus – Portrait of a Young Woman [c.1470]

16th Century: Russian Mitre


Mitra ШИТЬЕ/Митра Век: XVI-XVII Место хранения: Государственный музей искусств Грузии Размер: 28,5 х 19,5 Edit
Mitra SHIT'Ye/Mitra Vek: XVI-XVII Mesto khraneniya: Gosudarstvennyy muzey iskusstv Gruzii Razmer: 28,5 kh 19,5

Mitra SEAT / Mitra Century: XVI-XVII Location: State Museum of Art of Georgia Size: 28.5 x 19.5

14th Century: Nola Mitre

“Mitre” – Sienese and Southern Italian Goldsmiths, about 1330-1355 – Nola, Cathedral – Angevin Naples – Temporary exhibition – Museum of the Treasure of Saint January in Naples

Color Pictures via flickr user *Karl* – clicking will take you to the pic

 

14th Century: Reliquary Bag

372448660_bee0f06f2c_o

14th Century: Altar Edging

fmc511248a-full

First half of 14th Cen.
Coral, Gold and Glass beads.

In German: Furlegeraus Kloster Isenhagen Niedersachsen 2, Viertel des 14 Jh.

Pictures from “Stadt im Wandel: Kunst und Kultur des Bürgetums in Norddeutchland 1150-1650”

14th Century: Marienwerder Antependium

altarbehang05

CHRIST IN GLORY
Antependium from Closter of Marienwerder Lower Saxony
14th C. Hanover, Kestnermuseum (W.M. XXII, 5)
102 x 180 cm.
Detail: Mandorala, 38 cm high

Chinese red silk damask, 14th century; seed pearls, coral beads, semi-precious stones in metal settings, stamped parcel-gilt silver plaques, stars and rosettes. Black, turquoise coloured and gold glass beads. Applied work and bead embroidery. The figures are worked on parchment. The silver plaques on the outer border of the altar frontal (not shown here) bear the arms of the Hamersen family.

Lit.: Norddeutsche Goldschmiedearbeiten und Stickereien des Mittelaltars. Ausstellung, Museum fur Kunst und Gewerve, Hamburg 1948, No. 92 – Sonderausstellung, Kestnermuseum, Hanover 1956/57, No. 54

Source: Schuette, Marie and Sigrid Muller-Christensen: Pictorial History of Embroidery ; NY: Frederick Praeger, 1964.

Antependium aus Kloster Marienwerder
Niedersachsen, frühes 14. Jh.
chinesische Seide mit Stickereien aus Seide, Perlen, Halbedelsteine, Glasflüsse, vergoldete Silberplättchen
102 x 180 cm
Hannover, Kestner-Museum
Inv.Nr. W.M. XXII,5

Christus thront in der Mandorla, umgeben von den vier Evangelistensymbolen.

Krone und Schleier. Kunst aus mittelalterlichen Frauenklöstern (Ausst.kat. Bonn, Essen), München 2005, Kat. 55.

13th Century: Halberstadt Mitre

12th Century Halberstadt Catherdral Mitre

Info from : http://www.lda-lsa.de

A mitra with animal symbolism from the Halberstadt cathedral treasure

The bishop’s headdress from the Halberstadt cathedral treasure embroidered on the most sumptuous of pearls impressively demonstrates the magnificence of the medieval church service as well as the great craftsmanship of contemporary textile art. The Mitra is almost completely preserved except for two formerly hanging on the back, wide bands and looks amazingly fresh in the color of the jewelry elements. In addition to gilded jewelery sheets and colored stones in golden versions, the variety of small pearls made of red coral, colorful glass flows and gilded metal and combined with river pearls is particularly impressive.

For a long time it was thought that these pearls were imported. However, there is evidence that freshwater pearl mussels were more abundant in native waters before being almost completely eradicated by depletion in the 18th century. Therefore, for the Lower Saxony beadwork – to which the Mitra belongs – pearls from the provenances of the Lüneburg Heath may well have been used.

The background for the beadwork, which is embroidered on pattern-precise parchment, is a thin gold foil. The two decorative bands, called Circulus and Titulus, are particularly broad and elaborate on this Miter . Horizontally, the Mitra move around many entwined tendrils with vine leaves, into which two quadruple-shaped medallions are integrated on the front and back. In miniature they depict representations of medieval animal symbolism, which was recorded in the compendium of the Physiologus, which has been immensely popular since early Christian times: On the detail illustration of the obverse, an eagle flies out of its nest with a young bird in its capture.

In the interpretation of salvation history, the eagle Christ immediately approaches the sun, the symbol of God, to whom he feeds a human child. In the neighboring medallion, the pelican, animating and nurturing the young with his blood, is shown. On the opposite side, the Phoenix rises from its ashes with its wings spread wide , and a lion bends over its still-born, unbroken boy to bring it to life with his breath . All four motifs are allegories of the resurrection of Christ and symbolize the Christian hope of the resurrection of the dead. This central content of faith finds a visible expression in a special way in the celebration of Easter, for which occasion the precious miter was probably determined.

Text: Dorothee Honekamp-Könemann
Internet: Dorothee Menke

 

13th Century: Square Reliquary Box

Niedersachsen, second half of 13th Cen.
Domkammer, Münster, Germany

Pictures from “Stadt im Wandel: Kunst und Kultur des Bürgetums in Norddeutchland 1150-1650”

Color pictures via: http://www.domkammer-muenster.de/index.php?myELEMENT=197224

13th Century: Cap, belt, cote, surcote of Fernando de la Certa

 

Cap belonging to Ferdinanado de la Certa, died aged 20 , 1211 or 1275, Spanish

Some Color pictures: Marianne Perdomo

Cap:

Belt:

Cote/Surcote:

According to the article by Benjamin L. Wild (2011): Emblems and enigmas: Revisiting the ‘sword’ belt of Fernando de la Cerda, Journal of Medieval History, 37:4, 378-396.

“In 1942, in the monastery of Santa Maria de los Regalis Huelgas (Burgos, Isapniya), served as a place of coronation and burial place of Spanish kings from the time of its founder, Alfonso VIII, was the tomb of Fernando de la Cerda, the eldest son of Alfonso X of Castile. Inside the tomb stone was placed the body 19-year-old Infanta in a luxurious, richly embroidered silk dress. Mastery of work, wealth and beauty, and not inferior to the waist, the waist is on the Infanta. This belt, unlike other clothing, jewelry heraldic symbols of Castile and Leon, had the marks of the royal houses of England, France and Navarre; presumably on the buckle emblem of Champagne. On the belt, there are also nine other heraldic symbols, not known in the thirteenth century Castile. Where does this thing and whose work he did not know until now, but there is debate about the three versions of its origin: Spanish, French or English.

Basis belt size 1920 mm long and 42 mm wide was woven on the plates and decorated with tiny blue and white glass beads. Inner face with black light green silk embroidered with gold thread. Both ends of the belt are attached two silver gilt plate about 150 mm long. To one of them is fastened the buckle and the other serving as the shank, has a trapezoidal shape and tapers somewhat towards the end. Both plates are decorated with pearls and sapphires, each taken four coated with a thin layer of enamel shield with heraldic images. Heraldic shields placed on the shank, rotated by 90 degrees with respect to all the others who are on the belt. This testifies to the manner of wearing this belt, which included hanging Shank – like the image is on the statue of King John Lackland of England (1199 – 1216), which is in Worcester Cathedral. Belt buckle has a trapezoidal shape.

Its hinged lid, designed to regulate the length of the belt and clip it at the right place, is one tripartite shield. Cover decorated with pearls, sapphires and one carnelian. 19 silver gilt belt pads divide into 20 equal parts by 75 mm. Each pad is attached on both sides, in the center – the pearl inset. Arched suspension-mount disposed between the first and second plates (counting from the buckle).

It is also made of gilded silver and decorated with pearls and sapphires, repeating motif buckle and tang. 20 sections belt decorated with alternating patterns. 10 of them are filled with intricate geometrical ornament in diamond-shaped framework, none of the images are not repeated, although they are very similar – including on a blue and white color scheme. 10 other sections filled constituents heraldic shields, some of which are repeated also on the buckle and the shank. Shields also made ​​in white and blue color, so it is unlikely that they reflect the actual color shown on them emblems. White and blue colors were not a couple inherent Heraldry Europe XIII century. Shields keep embroidered with white beads birds sitting on divided into 8 segments wheels. The remaining space between the wheel and shield busy little blue birds. Attempts to identify the heraldic symbols of those boards still causing heated debate and has not been successful: no consensus on this issue has not been worked out.”

DATE: Before 1275
MATTER AND TECHNIQUE:Silk, metallic threads, glass, water bottles, cabochons. Fabric, embroidery, die cut, crimped
DIMENSIONS: Height greater 15.7 cm; lower height 13.5 cm; diameter 19 cm
COLLECTION: Royal Pantheon of Las Huelgas de Burgos, grave of Infante Don Fernando
STOCK NUMBER: 00650523
DESCRIPTION: This headdress has a cylindrical shape with a lining and strips of fabric for adjustment. It is decorated on the surface with barracks of castles and lions. The castles are designed with blue beads on a golden silver surface that is arranged on a red background of vitreous beads, and the lions are embroidered on the background of pearl beads. Top with two metal perimeter strips on the top and bottom that are decorated with cabochons and incised decoration with shields of castles and lions.
The Monastery of Santa María la Real de las Huelgas de Burgos, founded in 1187 by Alfonso VIII and Leonor Plantagenet, served during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries as a pantheon of the Castilian royal family. The opening of its graves, carried out for a scientific purpose of study, occurred between 1942 and 1944, and provided what is to date the best set of medieval civilian clothing in the world, both in quantity and quality. Despite the violent openings suffered throughout history, one of the burials of the pantheon, attributed to Emperor Alfonso VII, remained intact until the twentieth century. After its opening and study, the infant Fernando de la Cerda (1255-1275), heir of Alfonso X the Wise, was awarded. The grave, with all its contents intact,
The infant was buried with his own suit, complemented by a ring in his right hand, a beautiful belt, his sword, and some spikes. His body rested on several pillows in a wooden coffin lined, both outside and inside, with rich textiles. Unlike previous times, the men of the 13th century liked to cover their heads with different headdresses, an exceptional example being this mortarboard decorated with the infant’s weapons.
The mortarboard is made by a cylindrical beech wood frame, which serves as a support, covered by a thin white canvas lined with crimson taffeta, on which the heraldic decoration is arranged. The chinstrap is made with two fragments of fabric sewn in round, decorated with a crimson geometric composition outlined in black on a golden background.
The decoration of castles of castles and lions are the weapons that corresponded to the infant, firstborn of Alfonso X, and responds to the taste for the so-called heraldic fashion, typical of the second half of the thirteenth century, in which this decorative motif invades all kinds of surfaces. In the context of the Monasterio de las Huelgas, he adorns several royal graves and decorates the textile trousseau and clothing, such as the saya, the ball and the mantle of the same infant, or the mantle of King Ferdinand III the saint.
This type of ceremonial headdress, called mortarboard or bonnet, is framed within the generic type of leather, which according to Carmen Bernis would be a more general voice for all types of garments worn on the head. Inspired by the military world, its origin lies in the cylindrical helmets of the early thirteenth century, and caused a furor among the privileged classes. The Book of Games and Las Cantigas by Alfonso X el Sabio offer several examples of people touched with this type of mortarboard, which in the case of royal representations, is adorned with the barracks of castles and lions, following the same colors as this model.
Only three copies of this type of headdress are preserved: the one belonging to the infant Don Felipe (+ 1274), son of Fernando III, extracted from his grave in the church of Santa María la Blanca in Villalcázar de Sirga (Palencia) and preserved in the National Archaeological Museum; that of King Alfonso X (+1284), buried in the cathedral of Seville and still in his sepulcher; and the richest of all, this specimen belonging to the infant Fernando de la Cerda, found his grave in the Monastery of Las Huelgas.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BERNIS MADRAZO, Carmen, Spanish medieval clothing. Madrid: Diego Velázquez Institute of the Higher Council for Scientific Research, 1956.
DESCALZO, Amalia. “Les vêtements royaux du monastère Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas.” In Fashion and clothing in late medieval Europe, edited by Regula Schorta and Reiner Christoph Schwinges, 97-106. Switzerland: Abegg-Stiftung, Riggisberg, 2009.
GÓMEZ MORENO, Manuel. The royal Pantheon of the Strikes of Burgos. Madrid: Higher Council for Scientific Research, 1946.
HERRERO CARRETERO, Concha. Catalog of the Museum of Medieval Fabrics. National Heritage, 1988
PIDAL MENENDEZ, Faustino. Heraldry of the royal house of León and Castilla: 12th-16th centuries. Madrid: Hidalguía, 2011.
YARZA LUANCES, Joaquín. Rich clothes. The monastery of Las Huelgas and its time 1170-1340. [cat. exp. Madrid, Royal Palace]. National Heritage, 2005.

13th Century: Orphrey


In some sources this pointed orphrey end is often paired with two bead saints heads, from the same museum since they are similar in time frame, and materials. Since they are not from the same piece I am seperating them.

All but the first picture were taken by myself, Jen Segrest.

13th Century: German Panels

On parchment with beads and seed pearls
German, 13th Century Blue glass, red coral, gold and seed pearls (most salvaged/looted) on parchment with linen thread.

The two detached pieces are in the V&A collection (the one with the more colorful halo) and the other (still attached to the edging) is in a museum in Germany.

The pair in the V&A appear for all intents and purposes to have been removed from the German piece and were sold in the late 40’s (war happens). I have worked up a comparison, they are as best I can deduce made by the same hand. You can find my notes on them here.

This selection of pictures is to compare contrast the  items as they they are assumed to have originated from the same piece.

While they are technically two different pieces, I have decided to  present them together as they are from the same work.


Beadwork, (Shire Album #57), by Pamela Clabur

“The american indians… here the beads are threaded and laid on the ground material. The attaching thread is quite separate and is brought up from below and catches down the thread between the two beads. this is in effect, a form of couching.” “Exactly the same method of attachment was used in the german beadwork of the 12th Century. Here it is combined with with the sewing on of single beads where the design required it, but it can be seen that are long strands of the same colours and only a very few single colors even in such detailed parts of the design as the faces. Six hundred years later the method was still being used”


Bead Embroidery By Joan Edwards.

“Long before needlewomen of the nineteenth century discovered the possibilities of beadwork, comparatively coarse beads had been used in various parts of Europe for embroidery for a very long time indeed. A great deal of work was done, for example, during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in Lower Saxony, examples of which can be seen in Hanover and Darmstadt. The beads were usually attached to vellum, and it has been suggested that the existence of this beadwork might-like the German whitework or “opus teutonicum” of the Middle Ages-be interpreted as a sign of poverty amongst the German convents at this time, and that the beads were perhaps a substitute for work in pearls, precious metals, and the coveted Byzantine enamels. Nevertheless, the vestments and hangings must have gleamed with considerable beauty in the dark, candle lit cathedrals and churches, shining through the dimness like the stained glass in the windows, and there seems little doubt that the designs were good and well drawn.”