17th Century: Portrait of a young woman from a Gdańsk patrician family, around 1625-35

Portrait of a young woman from a Gdańsk patrician family, around 1625-35.
Artist unknown.
From the collection of Museu Sa Bassa Blanc.

17th Century: Spangled ruff in Portraits of Doña Ana de Velasco y Girón

She must have loved this amazing ruff with dangling silver pointed spangles, this looks like the same one and same person over a few decades! Must have ben her signature item.

 

17th Century: Portrait of Krystyna Lubomirska, after 1603

(Polish) National Musuem in Warsaw

More:

 

 

17th Century: Portrait of a lady with an elaborate jewelled headdress

Spanish School, 17th Century
Portrait of a lady with an elaborate jewelled headdress
oil on canvas
28 x 22 in. (71.1 x 55.9 cm.)

17th Century: Hungarian wedding dress

WOMAN’S CORSET-BODICE AND SKIRT
Mid-17th Century
MAGYAR NEMZETI MÚZEUM
(Hungarian National Museum)
Budapest, Hungary

Earlier researches attributed the costume to Pál Esterházy’s (1635–1713) first wife Orsolya Esterházy (1641–1682) and later to his second wife Éva Thököly (1659–1716). The original owner can no longer be traced but the cut and the embroidery ascertain that either could have worn it at her wedding. Contrary to Western European customs, in Hungary later generations gladly donned the ornate costumes of their forebears on some festive occasion. The suite was restored by Mrs Sándor Borsi between 1969 and 1971.

The skirt and the attached bodice constitute an outstanding ensemble of old Hungarian costume, a harmonious alloy of the exotic oriental traditions of earlier centuries and elements of the fast-changing Western European fashions.

(Note from Jen: I’m going to guess the red beads are Coral, I have many such examples of coral beads from Germany in earlier centuries. I’m trying to find more on this.)

Outside link: Veil and Edge Beading

I used to have a PDF for a class on some basic veil edging work and a little research. It was corrupted over the years and  recently was asked to try to find it and was unable to.

But I did find THIS. And it’s far superior to what I had, and why re-invent the wheel when I can spread the love. So it’s linked below!

Point any Questions about it to the author, Dona Yasmina who has contact info on the last page of the document.

Practically Period and Perfectly Practical Prettification: Basic Steps in Beaded Edging
by Dona Alessandra Bentivegna da Faenza, called Yasmina, Barony of Thescorre

16th Century: Portrait of Hedwig Jagiello

Hedwig Jagiello (1513-1573)

Hedwig Jagiello was born on March 15., 1513 in poznań and died on February 7., 1573 She was a polish princess from 1535 to 1535 until 1535

Hedwig was the daughter of the king of Poland. From Poland from his marriage to Barbara references, daughter of hungarian pala and magnet Stephan references.

She married on 1. September 1535 in krakow on 1. September 1535 in Krakow. Four children were born four children:

• Elisabeth (born). 1537; gesture. He married Duke Franz Otto, married to Duke Franz Otto of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Born 1595). 1530; gesture. 1559
• Sigismund (born). 1538; gesture. 1566), Prince of Brandenburg, Archbishop of magdeburg and bishop of Berlin
• Hedwig (born). 1540; gesture. 1602), princess of Brandenburg, married to Duke Julius of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
• Sophia (born). 1541; gesture. 1564), princess of Brandenburg, married to Wilhelm Von Rosenberg

The Strictly Catholic Princess held on her faith, even when her husband turned to Lutheran teaching and began the reformation in Brandenburg. Joachim had released his wife to accept the new marriage or to remain faithful to the old man.

She accompanied her husband in 1541 to regensburg in 1541 When Joachim accepted Luther’s teaching, she remained with her catholic faith in her Catholic Faith, which gave her the spouse after interventions from Krakow.

After the death of Joachim II. In 1571 she lived at the castle of ruppin castle in old ruppin. She died there at the age of 59 on February 7., 1573.

.
Source:
Www. Gene. Org
Www. Berlin-the capital. They
Www. DB-Thueringen. They
(Digital Library Thuringia)
Www Yes Wow! PL
(German Historical Institute Warsaw)
Www. Universes-Mercatores-of-Hansa-Theutonicorum. From
(Universitatis Jagellonica Cracoviensis acta scientiarum)

Literature:
– Johann Dorner: Duchess Hedwig and her court state: everyday life at the castle castle according to original sources of the 15. th century, volume 53 of Burgundy’s history leaves
– Juliane Jacobi: Pre-Modern Education: Self-and foreign descriptions in the early modern period (contributions to historical education research, volume 41), page 216, ISBN 10: 9783412204921 AND ISBN 13: 978-3412204921

Image: Hedwig Princess of brandenburg at 1535, portrayed by Hans Krell (1490-1565)

16th Century: Portraits of sisters, and family.

Family Portrait of Armgard and Walburgis, Countesses of Rietberg and parents, Count John II of Rietberg and Agnes of Bentheim-Steinfurt in Rietberg. Piece was mutilated in 19th-century and reassembled from 3 pieces.Detail: Armgard and Walburgis, Countesses of Rietberg
Portraits by Tom Ring

 

16th Century: Portraits of Susanna of Bavaria

Artist: Peter Gertner (attr.) – Unknown

Susanna of Bavaria (2 April 1502 – 23 April 1543)
Susannah of Bavaria on Wikipedia

Suzanna of Bavaria, Margravine of Brandebourg-Culmbach by Barthel Beham

16th Century: Portraits of Sophie of Mecklenburg

Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (4 September 1557 – 14 October 1631)

16th Century: Portrait 1511

Portrait of the Margrave Casimir of Brandenburg
1511, lime panel, Pinakothek at Munich

16th Century: Portraits of Anne of Denmark

Anne of Denmark (12 December 1574 – 2 March 1619), Queen consort of Scotland, England and Ireland

16th Century: Portraits of Barbara Radziwill

Barbora Radvilaitė; 6 December 1520/23 – 8 May 1551) was Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania

More Portraits of  Barbara Radziwill

This is a unique case, being her clothing is so unique and she appears to have many different pieces of this cowl as well as other beadwork so I decided to lump her all into one page.

16th Century: Portrait of Anne of Cleves

Anne of Cleves by Holbein, c.1539.

16th Century: Portrait

Portrait of Felicitas von Wallbrunn, 1539 : Mittelrhein-Museum, Koblenz. Germany  by Hans Abel the Younger (1506-1567)

16th Century: Portrait Wilhelm IV of Bavaria and his wife Jacoba of Baden, 1525

Duke Wilhelm IV of Bavaria and his wife Jacoba of Baden (1526) by Hans Schwab von Wertinger

Museum Veste Coburg

16th Century: Portrait 1545

Conrad Faber Portrait of Anne von Glauburg1545

16th Century: Portrait 1518

 1518 Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Anna Buchner

16th Century: Portrait 1513

Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553)  and his workshop  Portrait of a Woman 1513

16th Century: Portrait

Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Princess Maria of Saxony

16th Century: Portrait

Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a Young Lady Holding Grapes

16th Century: Portrait of Saxon Princesses

Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a Young Woman 1530

16th Century: Portrait 1530

Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a Young Woman 1530

16th Century: Portrait 1528

Lucas Cranach (Northern Renaissance Painter, 1472-1553) and his workshop Portrait of a Woman 1528

 

16th Century: Portrait 1541

LUCAS CRANACH (1472 – 1553) | A Lady in a green velvet and orange dress and a pearl-embroidered black hat – 1541.

16th Century: German-Saxon Portrait

Hans Krell (before 1586). 16th C: Early German-Saxon (Cranach) Gown

15th Century: Portrait

 

Portrait of a young lady of fashion
c.1460 by Paolo Uccello

16th Century: Painting


Lucretia by Lucas Cranach the Elder,1512

16th Century: Portrait

Portrait of a woman,16th c.

17th Century: Flinderhaube

This is from a SCA researcher, who did a rather spectacular bit of research into those amazing gold German cauls you see often. Sometimes they look like beads, but sometimes they don’t, and here is a bit of info on what they are!

I will just send you there since it’s not entirely beads, even though a decorative thing with a hole technically qualifies, but it is late to post period so – off you go!

Flinderhaube – project documentation

15th Century: Portrait

Wedding portrait from Jakob Fugger the rich and his wife Sibylla Artzt by Thomas Burgkmair

12th Century: Roger II Coronation Mantle

Mantle of Roger II of Sicily (detail) made in 1133, Kunsthistorische Museum, Vienna

15th Century: Portrait after 1451

GERTNER, PETER (Nuremberg circa 1495/1500 – after 1541)
Susanne, electoress of the Pfalz as Salome.
Oil on panel. 48 x 37 cm.

15th Century: Portrait 1460

Portrait of a Lady in Red, probably 1460-70, Italian, Florentine. National Gallery, London.

15th Century: Portrait 1530

Lucas Cranach (and his workshop) | Portrait of a Young Woman, 1530

15th Century: Portrait 1515

(c) National Trust, Waddesdon Manor; Supplied by The Public Catalogue Foundation

 

Lucas Cranach the Elder(1472–1553), Portrait of an unknown lady (formerly called ‘Sybille of cleves, wife of John Frederick of Saxony’), 1515.

15th Century: Portrait

UNKNOWN 
from the”Medieval European Jewelry” by Ronald Lightbowen.
Victoria & Albert Musuem, London
Thanks to Roxelana for this one.

15th Century: Portrait

UNKNOWN
from the”Medieval European Jewelry” by Ronald Lightbowen.
Victoria & Albert Musuem, London

15th Century: Portrait

Hemma von Gurk wearing the Order of the Swan by Sebald Bopp,c. 1490

Artist active at the court of Ansbach (?) c 1490, Thyssen-Bornemisza CollectionSource: the book Early German Painting 1350-1550

16th Century: Portrait

Portrait of a woman, possibly by Conrad Faber von Kreuznach, early 16th century

16th Century: Portrait

HEUSLER, ANTON (ATTRIBUTED TO) (Circa 1500 – 1562)

16th Century: Portrait

Portrait of Hedwig Jagiellon, Electress of Brandenburg by Hans Krell, ca. 1537 (PD-art/old), Jagdschloss Grunewald; most probably portrayed in her wedding dress with monogram S of her father Sigismund I of Poland on sleeves

16th Century: Portrait

Portrait of a Woman | Bartholomew Bruyn (the Elder) (Art) | Image Index of Art & Architecture

https://www.bildindex.de/document/obj05011068?part=0&medium=koeln_2579017

16th Century: Portrait

Portrait of Sibylla Kessel, detail (ca. 1540-1545)
Bartholomäus Bruyn (the Elder)

16th Century: Geweihter Hut (Hat)

Geweihter Hut

CULTURE
Italian

DATING
1567

MANUFACTURER / IN
Flaminio de Gatto, (Seidensticker) (around 1565 – 1570)

MATERIAL / TECHNOLOGY
Hat: black velvet, gold-plated edging, real pearls, sword: silver, gilded, wood, gold cloth

 

16th Century: Portrait

Élisabeth de Valois, by Juan Pantoja de la Cruz, 1565

Queen consort of Spain
Tenure: 22 June 1559 – 3 October 1568
Born: 2 April 1545 Palace of Fontainebleau
Died: 3 October 1568 (aged 23) Royal Palace of Aranjuez

Bio: https://en.wikipedia.org

14th Century: Paintings

Hours of Bertrando dei Rossi Visconti, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS lat 757 f380, Lombardy, 1385.

Taticum sanitatis, Italian c. 1390-1400, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris

13th Century: Cap of Alfonso X

birrete alfonso X imagen_envia

Alfonso X (also occasionally known as AlphonsoAlphonse, or Alfons, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), was the King of CastileLeón and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284.

12th Century: Alb of William II of Sicily, 1153-1189


Künstler: Palermo, Königliche Hofwerkstätten
Palermo, 1181 mit späteren Ergänzungen

Alb, garment worn for the coronation by Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire. Yellowish taffeta, gold trimming gold embroidery and pearls. Inscription says Alb was made for Norman King William II by the Royal workshop in Palermo, Sicily. 1181. Inv. XIII 7

Textil; liturgisches Gewand; Krönungsornat
Textil; Seide, Golddrahtstickerei, Perlen, Smaragde, Saphire, Amethyst, Spinell, Granat, Opal, Brettchengewebe
Translation: Silk, goldwork embroidery, pearls, Emerald, Sapphire, Amethyst, Spinel, Granat, woven strap (inkle?)
H. 154 cm, B. 127 cm

Inschrift:
“+OPERATV(M) FELICI VRBE PANORMI XV. ANNO D(OMI)NI W(ILLELMI) D(E)I GR(ATIA) REGIS SICILIE DVCAT(VS) APVLIE ET PRINCIPAT(VS) CAP(VE) FILII REGIS W(ILLELMI) INDICTIO(N)E XIIII.”; arabische Tulut-Schrift (Übersetzung s. Kat. Schatzkammer 1987)

Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Weltliche Schatzkammer

 

Alb of William II of Sicily (1153-1189).

The precious silk gown was used at the coronations of the kings and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire. There are Latin and Arabic inscriptions on the edge of the broad hem at the bottom. These tell us that the robe was created in Palermo under King William II in the year 1181. In 1194 the alb, along with the coronation robe (and the blue chasuble) was inherited by the Hohenstaufen dynasty and thus passed to the empire as part of the treasure of the Norman kings. Unlike the liturgical alb, the Alb was originally a royal outer garment.

Of particular importance, however, is the fact that on the Alb the embroidery on the cuffs executed in 1181 has been repaired, but the embroidery on the breast has been covered with younger embroidery executed around 1220.

The bottom border shows two motifs made in gold – pairs of confronted lions on white ground and pairs of confronted griffins on a purple ground fabric. Along the upper and lower border run a Latin and Arabic inscriptions indicating it was made for William II in the Royal Workshop of Sicily.

Materials included silk, gold wire embroidery, pearls, emeralds, sapphires, amethysts, spinells, garnets, opals, 154 cm long, 127 cm wide at the hem.

(Source: medieval.webcon.net.au via thegentlemanscloset.tumblr.com)

Alb of William II of Sicily (1153-1189).

The precious silk gown was used at the coronations of the kings and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire. There are Latin and Arabic inscriptions on the edge of the broad hem at the bottom. These tell us that the robe was created in Palermo under King William II in the year 1181. In 1194 the alb, along with the coronation robe (and the blue chasuble) was inherited by the Hohenstaufen dynasty and thus passed to the empire as part of the treasure of the Norman kings. Unlike the liturgical alb, the Alb was originally a royal outer garment.

Of particular importance, however, is the fact that on the Alb the embroidery on the cuffs executed in 1181 has been repaired, but the embroidery on the breast has been covered with younger embroidery executed around 1220.

The bottom border shows two motifs made in gold – pairs of confronted lions on white ground and pairs of confronted griffins on a purple ground fabric. Along the upper and lower border run a Latin and Arabic inscriptions indicating it was made for William II in the Royal Workshop of Sicily.

Materials included silk, gold wire embroidery, pearls, emeralds, sapphires, amethysts, spinells, garnets, opals, 154 cm long, 127 cm wide at the hem.

(Source: medieval.webcon.net.au)

13th Century: Shoes of the Holy Roman Emperor

372459507_8ba748ca8a_o

1220, Shoes of the Holy Roman Emperor
Kunsthistorische Museum, Vienna Sicily, beginning of the 13th century

Altered in Nuremberg between 1612 and 1619 Calf with red silk and gold edging; precious stones and pearls;L 25.5 cm and 26 cm each .¾

Like the gloves, these shoes were presumably made before 1220 for the Emperor Friedrich II.

 

13th Century: Cap, belt, cote, surcote of Fernando de la Certa

 

Cap belonging to Ferdinanado de la Certa, died aged 20 , 1211 or 1275, Spanish

Some Color pictures: Marianne Perdomo

Cap:

Belt:

Cote/Surcote:

According to the article by Benjamin L. Wild (2011): Emblems and enigmas: Revisiting the ‘sword’ belt of Fernando de la Cerda, Journal of Medieval History, 37:4, 378-396.

“In 1942, in the monastery of Santa Maria de los Regalis Huelgas (Burgos, Isapniya), served as a place of coronation and burial place of Spanish kings from the time of its founder, Alfonso VIII, was the tomb of Fernando de la Cerda, the eldest son of Alfonso X of Castile. Inside the tomb stone was placed the body 19-year-old Infanta in a luxurious, richly embroidered silk dress. Mastery of work, wealth and beauty, and not inferior to the waist, the waist is on the Infanta. This belt, unlike other clothing, jewelry heraldic symbols of Castile and Leon, had the marks of the royal houses of England, France and Navarre; presumably on the buckle emblem of Champagne. On the belt, there are also nine other heraldic symbols, not known in the thirteenth century Castile. Where does this thing and whose work he did not know until now, but there is debate about the three versions of its origin: Spanish, French or English.

Basis belt size 1920 mm long and 42 mm wide was woven on the plates and decorated with tiny blue and white glass beads. Inner face with black light green silk embroidered with gold thread. Both ends of the belt are attached two silver gilt plate about 150 mm long. To one of them is fastened the buckle and the other serving as the shank, has a trapezoidal shape and tapers somewhat towards the end. Both plates are decorated with pearls and sapphires, each taken four coated with a thin layer of enamel shield with heraldic images. Heraldic shields placed on the shank, rotated by 90 degrees with respect to all the others who are on the belt. This testifies to the manner of wearing this belt, which included hanging Shank – like the image is on the statue of King John Lackland of England (1199 – 1216), which is in Worcester Cathedral. Belt buckle has a trapezoidal shape.

Its hinged lid, designed to regulate the length of the belt and clip it at the right place, is one tripartite shield. Cover decorated with pearls, sapphires and one carnelian. 19 silver gilt belt pads divide into 20 equal parts by 75 mm. Each pad is attached on both sides, in the center – the pearl inset. Arched suspension-mount disposed between the first and second plates (counting from the buckle).

It is also made of gilded silver and decorated with pearls and sapphires, repeating motif buckle and tang. 20 sections belt decorated with alternating patterns. 10 of them are filled with intricate geometrical ornament in diamond-shaped framework, none of the images are not repeated, although they are very similar – including on a blue and white color scheme. 10 other sections filled constituents heraldic shields, some of which are repeated also on the buckle and the shank. Shields also made ​​in white and blue color, so it is unlikely that they reflect the actual color shown on them emblems. White and blue colors were not a couple inherent Heraldry Europe XIII century. Shields keep embroidered with white beads birds sitting on divided into 8 segments wheels. The remaining space between the wheel and shield busy little blue birds. Attempts to identify the heraldic symbols of those boards still causing heated debate and has not been successful: no consensus on this issue has not been worked out.”

DATE: Before 1275
MATTER AND TECHNIQUE:Silk, metallic threads, glass, water bottles, cabochons. Fabric, embroidery, die cut, crimped
DIMENSIONS: Height greater 15.7 cm; lower height 13.5 cm; diameter 19 cm
COLLECTION: Royal Pantheon of Las Huelgas de Burgos, grave of Infante Don Fernando
STOCK NUMBER: 00650523
DESCRIPTION: This headdress has a cylindrical shape with a lining and strips of fabric for adjustment. It is decorated on the surface with barracks of castles and lions. The castles are designed with blue beads on a golden silver surface that is arranged on a red background of vitreous beads, and the lions are embroidered on the background of pearl beads. Top with two metal perimeter strips on the top and bottom that are decorated with cabochons and incised decoration with shields of castles and lions.
The Monastery of Santa María la Real de las Huelgas de Burgos, founded in 1187 by Alfonso VIII and Leonor Plantagenet, served during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries as a pantheon of the Castilian royal family. The opening of its graves, carried out for a scientific purpose of study, occurred between 1942 and 1944, and provided what is to date the best set of medieval civilian clothing in the world, both in quantity and quality. Despite the violent openings suffered throughout history, one of the burials of the pantheon, attributed to Emperor Alfonso VII, remained intact until the twentieth century. After its opening and study, the infant Fernando de la Cerda (1255-1275), heir of Alfonso X the Wise, was awarded. The grave, with all its contents intact,
The infant was buried with his own suit, complemented by a ring in his right hand, a beautiful belt, his sword, and some spikes. His body rested on several pillows in a wooden coffin lined, both outside and inside, with rich textiles. Unlike previous times, the men of the 13th century liked to cover their heads with different headdresses, an exceptional example being this mortarboard decorated with the infant’s weapons.
The mortarboard is made by a cylindrical beech wood frame, which serves as a support, covered by a thin white canvas lined with crimson taffeta, on which the heraldic decoration is arranged. The chinstrap is made with two fragments of fabric sewn in round, decorated with a crimson geometric composition outlined in black on a golden background.
The decoration of castles of castles and lions are the weapons that corresponded to the infant, firstborn of Alfonso X, and responds to the taste for the so-called heraldic fashion, typical of the second half of the thirteenth century, in which this decorative motif invades all kinds of surfaces. In the context of the Monasterio de las Huelgas, he adorns several royal graves and decorates the textile trousseau and clothing, such as the saya, the ball and the mantle of the same infant, or the mantle of King Ferdinand III the saint.
This type of ceremonial headdress, called mortarboard or bonnet, is framed within the generic type of leather, which according to Carmen Bernis would be a more general voice for all types of garments worn on the head. Inspired by the military world, its origin lies in the cylindrical helmets of the early thirteenth century, and caused a furor among the privileged classes. The Book of Games and Las Cantigas by Alfonso X el Sabio offer several examples of people touched with this type of mortarboard, which in the case of royal representations, is adorned with the barracks of castles and lions, following the same colors as this model.
Only three copies of this type of headdress are preserved: the one belonging to the infant Don Felipe (+ 1274), son of Fernando III, extracted from his grave in the church of Santa María la Blanca in Villalcázar de Sirga (Palencia) and preserved in the National Archaeological Museum; that of King Alfonso X (+1284), buried in the cathedral of Seville and still in his sepulcher; and the richest of all, this specimen belonging to the infant Fernando de la Cerda, found his grave in the Monastery of Las Huelgas.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BERNIS MADRAZO, Carmen, Spanish medieval clothing. Madrid: Diego Velázquez Institute of the Higher Council for Scientific Research, 1956.
DESCALZO, Amalia. “Les vêtements royaux du monastère Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas.” In Fashion and clothing in late medieval Europe, edited by Regula Schorta and Reiner Christoph Schwinges, 97-106. Switzerland: Abegg-Stiftung, Riggisberg, 2009.
GÓMEZ MORENO, Manuel. The royal Pantheon of the Strikes of Burgos. Madrid: Higher Council for Scientific Research, 1946.
HERRERO CARRETERO, Concha. Catalog of the Museum of Medieval Fabrics. National Heritage, 1988
PIDAL MENENDEZ, Faustino. Heraldry of the royal house of León and Castilla: 12th-16th centuries. Madrid: Hidalguía, 2011.
YARZA LUANCES, Joaquín. Rich clothes. The monastery of Las Huelgas and its time 1170-1340. [cat. exp. Madrid, Royal Palace]. National Heritage, 2005.

13th Century: Fredrick II Gloves

Gloves of the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II

Early 13th century, before 1220
Vienna, Weltliche Schatzkammer

Circumference of the wrist opening: 24 (25) cm Length from the wrist to the point of the middle finger: 25.5 (27) cm

Red silk. Gold embroidery in couched work. The back of the hand is rechley embroidered with pearls, rubies, sapphires and enamelled plawues (four of the latter have been lost and replaced by others). On the inner side, a single-headed nimbed eagle. The gloves were made in the Royal Workshops of Sicily for the Emperor Frederick II and were worn by him at his coronation in 1220.

Lit.: H. Fillitz, Die Insignien und Kleinodien des Heiligen, Romischen Reiches. Vienna- Munich 1954, p. 59, figs. 31, 32 – P. E. Schramm und F. Mutherich, Denkmale der deutschen Konige und Kaiser, Munich 1962, p. 190, No. 200

Source: Schuette, Marie and Sigrid Muller-Christensen: Pictorial History of Embroidery ; NY: Frederick Praeger, 1964.

Some Images kindly provided by Prof Michael Greenhalgh