13th Century: Ciborium/Ziborium (Host Box)

chalice-lgBeaded container for the Holy Host

Second half of the 13th Century
In german: Ziborium mit perlstickerei, Niedersachen, 2, Halfte 13 JH

Schnutgen Museum, Köln (Cologne) Germany

Some Color Pictures from “Stadt im Wandel: Kunst und Kultur des Bürgetums in Norddeutchland 1150-1650”
Some pictures from: https://www.bildindex.de/document/obj05071467?medium=rba_c005536
Some photos are copyright courtesy the most gracious Racaire at www.racaire.com

13th Century: Halberstadt Antependium

 german12thAltar frontal of the high altar of Halberstadt Cathedral

Lower Saxony, second half of the 13th century, Halberstadt, Cathedral Museum, No. 203
Throne: about 58 cm high

Detail. Red satin faded to old rose. Bead embroidery on parchment and linen. Coral and glass beads of cylindrical and spherical form, opaque and transparent. Predominant colors: coral red, two shades of green, dark blue shading, to light blue, turquoise, aubergine (i.e. eggplant purple), gold, black.

All the seed pearls and most of the violet glass beads and the gilded plaques are now missing. The outer edge and inner fields of the throne had metal plaques with Romanesque foliage and palmettes (their imprints remain on the material). The effect of the whole is impaired by the white patches left where the seed pearls and gold plaques have disappeared.

Pictoral History of Embroidery, M. Schuette (Library of Congress # 64-13379) [Gestickte Bildteppiche des Mittelalters (in english: Art of Medieval Tapestry), Leipzig1930.] Frederick A. Praeger, Inc, Publisher, New York 1964, 64 University Place, New York 3, New York

13th Century: Host Box

13th Century: Cap of Alfonso X

birrete alfonso X imagen_envia

Alfonso X (also occasionally known as AlphonsoAlphonse, or Alfons, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), was the King of CastileLeón and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284.

12th Century: Alb of William II of Sicily, 1153-1189


Künstler: Palermo, Königliche Hofwerkstätten
Palermo, 1181 mit späteren Ergänzungen

Alb, garment worn for the coronation by Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire. Yellowish taffeta, gold trimming gold embroidery and pearls. Inscription says Alb was made for Norman King William II by the Royal workshop in Palermo, Sicily. 1181. Inv. XIII 7

Textil; liturgisches Gewand; Krönungsornat
Textil; Seide, Golddrahtstickerei, Perlen, Smaragde, Saphire, Amethyst, Spinell, Granat, Opal, Brettchengewebe
Translation: Silk, goldwork embroidery, pearls, Emerald, Sapphire, Amethyst, Spinel, Granat, woven strap (inkle?)
H. 154 cm, B. 127 cm

Inschrift:
“+OPERATV(M) FELICI VRBE PANORMI XV. ANNO D(OMI)NI W(ILLELMI) D(E)I GR(ATIA) REGIS SICILIE DVCAT(VS) APVLIE ET PRINCIPAT(VS) CAP(VE) FILII REGIS W(ILLELMI) INDICTIO(N)E XIIII.”; arabische Tulut-Schrift (Übersetzung s. Kat. Schatzkammer 1987)

Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Weltliche Schatzkammer

 

Alb of William II of Sicily (1153-1189).

The precious silk gown was used at the coronations of the kings and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire. There are Latin and Arabic inscriptions on the edge of the broad hem at the bottom. These tell us that the robe was created in Palermo under King William II in the year 1181. In 1194 the alb, along with the coronation robe (and the blue chasuble) was inherited by the Hohenstaufen dynasty and thus passed to the empire as part of the treasure of the Norman kings. Unlike the liturgical alb, the Alb was originally a royal outer garment.

Of particular importance, however, is the fact that on the Alb the embroidery on the cuffs executed in 1181 has been repaired, but the embroidery on the breast has been covered with younger embroidery executed around 1220.

The bottom border shows two motifs made in gold – pairs of confronted lions on white ground and pairs of confronted griffins on a purple ground fabric. Along the upper and lower border run a Latin and Arabic inscriptions indicating it was made for William II in the Royal Workshop of Sicily.

Materials included silk, gold wire embroidery, pearls, emeralds, sapphires, amethysts, spinells, garnets, opals, 154 cm long, 127 cm wide at the hem.

(Source: medieval.webcon.net.au via thegentlemanscloset.tumblr.com)

Alb of William II of Sicily (1153-1189).

The precious silk gown was used at the coronations of the kings and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire. There are Latin and Arabic inscriptions on the edge of the broad hem at the bottom. These tell us that the robe was created in Palermo under King William II in the year 1181. In 1194 the alb, along with the coronation robe (and the blue chasuble) was inherited by the Hohenstaufen dynasty and thus passed to the empire as part of the treasure of the Norman kings. Unlike the liturgical alb, the Alb was originally a royal outer garment.

Of particular importance, however, is the fact that on the Alb the embroidery on the cuffs executed in 1181 has been repaired, but the embroidery on the breast has been covered with younger embroidery executed around 1220.

The bottom border shows two motifs made in gold – pairs of confronted lions on white ground and pairs of confronted griffins on a purple ground fabric. Along the upper and lower border run a Latin and Arabic inscriptions indicating it was made for William II in the Royal Workshop of Sicily.

Materials included silk, gold wire embroidery, pearls, emeralds, sapphires, amethysts, spinells, garnets, opals, 154 cm long, 127 cm wide at the hem.

(Source: medieval.webcon.net.au)

13th Century: Reliquary hanging

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13th Century reliquary hanging, German

Bezants, beaded tassle tops and beads around the little glass (?) insets.

13th Century: Halberstadt Mitre

12th Century Halberstadt Catherdral Mitre

Info from : http://www.lda-lsa.de

A mitra with animal symbolism from the Halberstadt cathedral treasure

The bishop’s headdress from the Halberstadt cathedral treasure embroidered on the most sumptuous of pearls impressively demonstrates the magnificence of the medieval church service as well as the great craftsmanship of contemporary textile art. The Mitra is almost completely preserved except for two formerly hanging on the back, wide bands and looks amazingly fresh in the color of the jewelry elements. In addition to gilded jewelery sheets and colored stones in golden versions, the variety of small pearls made of red coral, colorful glass flows and gilded metal and combined with river pearls is particularly impressive.

For a long time it was thought that these pearls were imported. However, there is evidence that freshwater pearl mussels were more abundant in native waters before being almost completely eradicated by depletion in the 18th century. Therefore, for the Lower Saxony beadwork – to which the Mitra belongs – pearls from the provenances of the Lüneburg Heath may well have been used.

The background for the beadwork, which is embroidered on pattern-precise parchment, is a thin gold foil. The two decorative bands, called Circulus and Titulus, are particularly broad and elaborate on this Miter . Horizontally, the Mitra move around many entwined tendrils with vine leaves, into which two quadruple-shaped medallions are integrated on the front and back. In miniature they depict representations of medieval animal symbolism, which was recorded in the compendium of the Physiologus, which has been immensely popular since early Christian times: On the detail illustration of the obverse, an eagle flies out of its nest with a young bird in its capture.

In the interpretation of salvation history, the eagle Christ immediately approaches the sun, the symbol of God, to whom he feeds a human child. In the neighboring medallion, the pelican, animating and nurturing the young with his blood, is shown. On the opposite side, the Phoenix rises from its ashes with its wings spread wide , and a lion bends over its still-born, unbroken boy to bring it to life with his breath . All four motifs are allegories of the resurrection of Christ and symbolize the Christian hope of the resurrection of the dead. This central content of faith finds a visible expression in a special way in the celebration of Easter, for which occasion the precious miter was probably determined.

Text: Dorothee Honekamp-Könemann
Internet: Dorothee Menke

 

14th Century: Sudarium

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13th Century: Square Reliquary Box

Niedersachsen, second half of 13th Cen.
Domkammer, Münster, Germany

Pictures from “Stadt im Wandel: Kunst und Kultur des Bürgetums in Norddeutchland 1150-1650”

Color pictures via: http://www.domkammer-muenster.de/index.php?myELEMENT=197224

13th Century: Shoes of the Holy Roman Emperor

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1220, Shoes of the Holy Roman Emperor
Kunsthistorische Museum, Vienna Sicily, beginning of the 13th century

Altered in Nuremberg between 1612 and 1619 Calf with red silk and gold edging; precious stones and pearls;L 25.5 cm and 26 cm each .¾

Like the gloves, these shoes were presumably made before 1220 for the Emperor Friedrich II.

 

13th Century: Cap, belt, cote, surcote of Fernando de la Certa

 

Cap belonging to Ferdinanado de la Certa, died aged 20 , 1211 or 1275, Spanish

Some Color pictures: Marianne Perdomo

Cap:

Belt:

Cote/Surcote:

According to the article by Benjamin L. Wild (2011): Emblems and enigmas: Revisiting the ‘sword’ belt of Fernando de la Cerda, Journal of Medieval History, 37:4, 378-396.

“In 1942, in the monastery of Santa Maria de los Regalis Huelgas (Burgos, Isapniya), served as a place of coronation and burial place of Spanish kings from the time of its founder, Alfonso VIII, was the tomb of Fernando de la Cerda, the eldest son of Alfonso X of Castile. Inside the tomb stone was placed the body 19-year-old Infanta in a luxurious, richly embroidered silk dress. Mastery of work, wealth and beauty, and not inferior to the waist, the waist is on the Infanta. This belt, unlike other clothing, jewelry heraldic symbols of Castile and Leon, had the marks of the royal houses of England, France and Navarre; presumably on the buckle emblem of Champagne. On the belt, there are also nine other heraldic symbols, not known in the thirteenth century Castile. Where does this thing and whose work he did not know until now, but there is debate about the three versions of its origin: Spanish, French or English.

Basis belt size 1920 mm long and 42 mm wide was woven on the plates and decorated with tiny blue and white glass beads. Inner face with black light green silk embroidered with gold thread. Both ends of the belt are attached two silver gilt plate about 150 mm long. To one of them is fastened the buckle and the other serving as the shank, has a trapezoidal shape and tapers somewhat towards the end. Both plates are decorated with pearls and sapphires, each taken four coated with a thin layer of enamel shield with heraldic images. Heraldic shields placed on the shank, rotated by 90 degrees with respect to all the others who are on the belt. This testifies to the manner of wearing this belt, which included hanging Shank – like the image is on the statue of King John Lackland of England (1199 – 1216), which is in Worcester Cathedral. Belt buckle has a trapezoidal shape.

Its hinged lid, designed to regulate the length of the belt and clip it at the right place, is one tripartite shield. Cover decorated with pearls, sapphires and one carnelian. 19 silver gilt belt pads divide into 20 equal parts by 75 mm. Each pad is attached on both sides, in the center – the pearl inset. Arched suspension-mount disposed between the first and second plates (counting from the buckle).

It is also made of gilded silver and decorated with pearls and sapphires, repeating motif buckle and tang. 20 sections belt decorated with alternating patterns. 10 of them are filled with intricate geometrical ornament in diamond-shaped framework, none of the images are not repeated, although they are very similar – including on a blue and white color scheme. 10 other sections filled constituents heraldic shields, some of which are repeated also on the buckle and the shank. Shields also made ​​in white and blue color, so it is unlikely that they reflect the actual color shown on them emblems. White and blue colors were not a couple inherent Heraldry Europe XIII century. Shields keep embroidered with white beads birds sitting on divided into 8 segments wheels. The remaining space between the wheel and shield busy little blue birds. Attempts to identify the heraldic symbols of those boards still causing heated debate and has not been successful: no consensus on this issue has not been worked out.”

DATE: Before 1275
MATTER AND TECHNIQUE:Silk, metallic threads, glass, water bottles, cabochons. Fabric, embroidery, die cut, crimped
DIMENSIONS: Height greater 15.7 cm; lower height 13.5 cm; diameter 19 cm
COLLECTION: Royal Pantheon of Las Huelgas de Burgos, grave of Infante Don Fernando
STOCK NUMBER: 00650523
DESCRIPTION: This headdress has a cylindrical shape with a lining and strips of fabric for adjustment. It is decorated on the surface with barracks of castles and lions. The castles are designed with blue beads on a golden silver surface that is arranged on a red background of vitreous beads, and the lions are embroidered on the background of pearl beads. Top with two metal perimeter strips on the top and bottom that are decorated with cabochons and incised decoration with shields of castles and lions.
The Monastery of Santa María la Real de las Huelgas de Burgos, founded in 1187 by Alfonso VIII and Leonor Plantagenet, served during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries as a pantheon of the Castilian royal family. The opening of its graves, carried out for a scientific purpose of study, occurred between 1942 and 1944, and provided what is to date the best set of medieval civilian clothing in the world, both in quantity and quality. Despite the violent openings suffered throughout history, one of the burials of the pantheon, attributed to Emperor Alfonso VII, remained intact until the twentieth century. After its opening and study, the infant Fernando de la Cerda (1255-1275), heir of Alfonso X the Wise, was awarded. The grave, with all its contents intact,
The infant was buried with his own suit, complemented by a ring in his right hand, a beautiful belt, his sword, and some spikes. His body rested on several pillows in a wooden coffin lined, both outside and inside, with rich textiles. Unlike previous times, the men of the 13th century liked to cover their heads with different headdresses, an exceptional example being this mortarboard decorated with the infant’s weapons.
The mortarboard is made by a cylindrical beech wood frame, which serves as a support, covered by a thin white canvas lined with crimson taffeta, on which the heraldic decoration is arranged. The chinstrap is made with two fragments of fabric sewn in round, decorated with a crimson geometric composition outlined in black on a golden background.
The decoration of castles of castles and lions are the weapons that corresponded to the infant, firstborn of Alfonso X, and responds to the taste for the so-called heraldic fashion, typical of the second half of the thirteenth century, in which this decorative motif invades all kinds of surfaces. In the context of the Monasterio de las Huelgas, he adorns several royal graves and decorates the textile trousseau and clothing, such as the saya, the ball and the mantle of the same infant, or the mantle of King Ferdinand III the saint.
This type of ceremonial headdress, called mortarboard or bonnet, is framed within the generic type of leather, which according to Carmen Bernis would be a more general voice for all types of garments worn on the head. Inspired by the military world, its origin lies in the cylindrical helmets of the early thirteenth century, and caused a furor among the privileged classes. The Book of Games and Las Cantigas by Alfonso X el Sabio offer several examples of people touched with this type of mortarboard, which in the case of royal representations, is adorned with the barracks of castles and lions, following the same colors as this model.
Only three copies of this type of headdress are preserved: the one belonging to the infant Don Felipe (+ 1274), son of Fernando III, extracted from his grave in the church of Santa María la Blanca in Villalcázar de Sirga (Palencia) and preserved in the National Archaeological Museum; that of King Alfonso X (+1284), buried in the cathedral of Seville and still in his sepulcher; and the richest of all, this specimen belonging to the infant Fernando de la Cerda, found his grave in the Monastery of Las Huelgas.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BERNIS MADRAZO, Carmen, Spanish medieval clothing. Madrid: Diego Velázquez Institute of the Higher Council for Scientific Research, 1956.
DESCALZO, Amalia. “Les vêtements royaux du monastère Santa Maria la Real de Huelgas.” In Fashion and clothing in late medieval Europe, edited by Regula Schorta and Reiner Christoph Schwinges, 97-106. Switzerland: Abegg-Stiftung, Riggisberg, 2009.
GÓMEZ MORENO, Manuel. The royal Pantheon of the Strikes of Burgos. Madrid: Higher Council for Scientific Research, 1946.
HERRERO CARRETERO, Concha. Catalog of the Museum of Medieval Fabrics. National Heritage, 1988
PIDAL MENENDEZ, Faustino. Heraldry of the royal house of León and Castilla: 12th-16th centuries. Madrid: Hidalguía, 2011.
YARZA LUANCES, Joaquín. Rich clothes. The monastery of Las Huelgas and its time 1170-1340. [cat. exp. Madrid, Royal Palace]. National Heritage, 2005.

13th Century: Orphrey


In some sources this pointed orphrey end is often paired with two bead saints heads, from the same museum since they are similar in time frame, and materials. Since they are not from the same piece I am seperating them.

All but the first picture were taken by myself, Jen Segrest.

13th Century: Stole

“Manipel”, First half of 13th Cen.

In German: Auf dem Mittlestreifen der goldborte finden sich, jeweils paarweise, Vierfüßler, Vogel, baumchen bzh, palmetten, seitlich davon schmale streifen mit Kette aus Rauten – und Winkenhakenformen in gold auf grunbzh. Viloett.
Rechts und links außen steht in Versakein: O SPES DIVINA VIA TUTA POTENS MEDICINA PORRIGE SUBSIDIUM
MISERIS O SANTA MARIA PROTOGE SALVA BENEDIC SANCTIFICA

Closeups are from my Visit to the V&A visit, read notes here.

13th Century: Fredrick II Gloves

Gloves of the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II

Early 13th century, before 1220
Vienna, Weltliche Schatzkammer

Circumference of the wrist opening: 24 (25) cm Length from the wrist to the point of the middle finger: 25.5 (27) cm

Red silk. Gold embroidery in couched work. The back of the hand is rechley embroidered with pearls, rubies, sapphires and enamelled plawues (four of the latter have been lost and replaced by others). On the inner side, a single-headed nimbed eagle. The gloves were made in the Royal Workshops of Sicily for the Emperor Frederick II and were worn by him at his coronation in 1220.

Lit.: H. Fillitz, Die Insignien und Kleinodien des Heiligen, Romischen Reiches. Vienna- Munich 1954, p. 59, figs. 31, 32 – P. E. Schramm und F. Mutherich, Denkmale der deutschen Konige und Kaiser, Munich 1962, p. 190, No. 200

Source: Schuette, Marie and Sigrid Muller-Christensen: Pictorial History of Embroidery ; NY: Frederick Praeger, 1964.

Some Images kindly provided by Prof Michael Greenhalgh

13th Century: German Panels

On parchment with beads and seed pearls
German, 13th Century Blue glass, red coral, gold and seed pearls (most salvaged/looted) on parchment with linen thread.

The two detached pieces are in the V&A collection (the one with the more colorful halo) and the other (still attached to the edging) is in a museum in Germany.

The pair in the V&A appear for all intents and purposes to have been removed from the German piece and were sold in the late 40’s (war happens). I have worked up a comparison, they are as best I can deduce made by the same hand. You can find my notes on them here.

This selection of pictures is to compare contrast the  items as they they are assumed to have originated from the same piece.

While they are technically two different pieces, I have decided to  present them together as they are from the same work.


Beadwork, (Shire Album #57), by Pamela Clabur

“The american indians… here the beads are threaded and laid on the ground material. The attaching thread is quite separate and is brought up from below and catches down the thread between the two beads. this is in effect, a form of couching.” “Exactly the same method of attachment was used in the german beadwork of the 12th Century. Here it is combined with with the sewing on of single beads where the design required it, but it can be seen that are long strands of the same colours and only a very few single colors even in such detailed parts of the design as the faces. Six hundred years later the method was still being used”


Bead Embroidery By Joan Edwards.

“Long before needlewomen of the nineteenth century discovered the possibilities of beadwork, comparatively coarse beads had been used in various parts of Europe for embroidery for a very long time indeed. A great deal of work was done, for example, during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in Lower Saxony, examples of which can be seen in Hanover and Darmstadt. The beads were usually attached to vellum, and it has been suggested that the existence of this beadwork might-like the German whitework or “opus teutonicum” of the Middle Ages-be interpreted as a sign of poverty amongst the German convents at this time, and that the beads were perhaps a substitute for work in pearls, precious metals, and the coveted Byzantine enamels. Nevertheless, the vestments and hangings must have gleamed with considerable beauty in the dark, candle lit cathedrals and churches, shining through the dimness like the stained glass in the windows, and there seems little doubt that the designs were good and well drawn.”