17th Century: Cockatrice Panel

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This shot is included so you can see the full work straight on.
I only have this shot in black and white.

Panel of a Coakatrice, 1673
Signed by Marthe Edline and dated 1673. Padded lid covered with white satin and embroidered with glass beads and cpolored silks in tent and roccoco stitches.Lined with Pink Satin.
Shire Album # 57 “Beadwork” Pamela Claburn Says:
A cockatrice within a wreath, flowers, and the inscription “Martha Edlin” Dated 1673. SAtin ebrodered with silk, glass beads and stiffened ribbon; tent and roccoco stitches and couch work. Detail: 12″x14″ (30.5×35.5 cm), Detail of the lid of a embroidered jewel case.”
Source: The Victoria and Albert’s Textile Collection: Emroidery in Britain from 1200 to 1750 Donald King and Santina Levey Canopy Books, 1993, A division of Abbeyville Press, Inc. ISBN: 1-55859-652-6

14th Century: Cope

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In German: Seidenkasel mit perlbesticktem Krenz Siede: Italien (?), 2 Halfte 13 Jh.,

Krenz: Niedersachsen (Braunschwieg), 3 Viertel 15 Jh.

Pictures: “Stadt im Wandel: Kunst und Kultur des Bürgetums
in Norddeutchland 1150-1650”

15th Century: Coral Chausable

Picture: Art Institute of Chicago

Chasuble, 1601/75

Silk, warp-float faced satin weave; underlaid with linen, plain weave; embroidered with linen, silk, gilt-metal strips, and gilt-metal-strip-wrapped silk in satin and split stitches; laid work, couching, padded couching; beaded with coral beads; edged with gilt-metal strip and gilt-metal-strip-wrapped silk, twill and plain weaves; lined with silk, plain weave
113.5 x 66.8 cm (44 5/8 x 26 1/4 in.)

14th Century: Mitre (Nola)

“Mitre” – Sienese and Southern Italian Goldsmiths, about 1330-1355 – Nola, Cathedral – Angevin Naples – Temporary exhibition – Museum of the Treasure of Saint January in Naples

Color Pictures via flickr user *Karl* – clicking will take you to the pic

 

14th Century: Mitre (Amalfi)

Mitre – Amalfi, Museo Diocesano – Neapolitan Workmanship – first quater of the 14th century – Pearls and golden plates with precious stones – Angevin Naples – Temporary exhibition – Museum of the Treasure of  Saint January in Naples

Color Pictures via flickr user *Karl* – clicking will take you to the pic

14th Century: Mitre (San Lorenzo)

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Mitre – Cathedral of San Lorenzo at Scala/Ravello – Southern Italian Goldsmiths – 13th-14th century – Red silk with pearls and golden plates with enamelled Apostles – Angevin Naples – Temporary exhibition – Museum of the Treasure of Saint January in Naples

flickr_gallery user_id=”83186333@N00″ id=”72157650799103938″]

Color Pictures via flickr user *Karl* – clicking will take you to the pic

14th Century: Beaded headrolls (various)

Hours of Bertrando dei Rossi Visconti, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS lat 757 f380, Lombardy, 1385.

Taticum sanitatis, Italian c. 1390-1400, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris

14th Century: Pearl Panel

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Thanks to Chris Laning for the shot!

14th Century: Cope (Marienwerder)

372559191_8348dbf779_oMarienwerder Cope

Pretty sure this is the back of a priest’s cope, as they almost always have a cross on the back.

14th Century: Altar Edging

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First half of 14th Cen.
Coral, Gold and Glass beads.

In German: Furlegeraus Kloster Isenhagen Niedersachsen 2, Viertel des 14 Jh.

Pictures from “Stadt im Wandel: Kunst und Kultur des Bürgetums in Norddeutchland 1150-1650”

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- Please recheck your ID(s).

14th Century: Antependium (Cheb)

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Antipendium (altar hanging) of Cathderal/Chapel of Cheb*
Approx. 1300 AD.

*also known as Eger (see note after plate description) Dimensions: 88cm x 228cm. Museum der stadt Cheb, Czechoslovakia.
SOURCE: “La Riqueza del Bordado Eclesiastico en Checoslovaquia”, by Zoroslava Drobna, 1949

Plate info in spanish:
Antipendium bordado con abalorios multicolores (perlitas de cristal) y con coralitos rosáceos. En dos filas, una encima de la otra, que constan de diez arcadas semicirculares, tiene colocadas las figuras de la Vírgen María, de Cristo, de santos y de santas. En su parte superior consta de una tira o franja, en la cual se hallan sobrepuestas o aplicadas cabezas, pintadas y más recientes, de santos y una tira con una inscripción mulitada por restauraciones posteriores. las figuras y las arcadas han sido borodadas sobre pergamino, borado que años más tarde ha aplicado o cosido sobre una tela de seda roja. Probablemente ha sido confeccionado por las monjas del convento de Santa Clara de Cheb para la cahilla del castillo de Cheb. Proximiades del año 1300 Dimensiones 88cmx228cm Museo Municipal de Cheb.

Plate info in English – to the best of my talents and using an online translator:
Altar hanging embroidered with multicolored glass beads (glass pearls?) and with rosaceous coralitos. In two rows, one upon the other of ten semicircular arches around the figures of the Virgin Maria, Christ, saints. In the top part it consists of a border which has overlapping or applied heads, painted and more recent, of saints and a strip with an inscription mutilated by later restorations. The figures and the arches have been embroidered on parchment, embroidered over years and applied or sewn on red silk fabric. Probably was made by the nuns of the convent of Saint Klara of Cheb for chapel of the castle of Cheb. Approx. 1300 AD. Dimensions 88cm x 228cm. City Museum of Cheb, (Czechoslovakia.)

Okay, I freely admit I’m extremely interested in this piece since it seems to have stayed in the very where it was made, and lived, and is still in such great shape. I have some research on Cheb and these locations mentioned in the plate descriptions, see it after the pictures below.

RESEARCH ON THIS PIECE’S ORIGINS

Notes About Cheb, Czech Republic: during the Middle Ages, and even into fairly modern times, Cheb (which is directly on the modern German/Czech border) has changed hands to and from Germany many times. Map of modern Czech Bohemian Province: Cheb can be seen almost extreme right, junst under the little finger section that shoots into Germany, right along the border. Youc an see how this could have changed hands many times. (another map has Cheb clearly marked extreme west point of Czech.)As a result, Germany calls it Eger and Czechoslovakia calls is Cheb.

You will see this listed more often as being from “Eger (Cheb)” more than “Cheb” alone. To make this even more confusing – There is also a Eger, Hungary It’s made my researching this piece a bit difficult, added to that all, Czechoslovakia was called “Bohemia” in period. Here is a period map of Cheb when it was Eger, Germany – the chapel of St. Klara is clearly marked in the high res pic entitled “De germania, Egrana ciuitas, olimde imperio Romanorum hodie uero regno Bohemiae subiecta”That last link calls Cheb “Located on Ohre river near the German border; town fell to Bohemian king Otakar I in 13th cen.; was often damaged by war, including in Hussite wars (1419-1436), Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) & War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748). ”

The Czech.cz history page, mentions German Colonization inthe 13th Century. Now, Locating the piece’s orgin in Cheb (Then named “Eger”):The plate description above says this was: “Probably was made by the nuns of the convent of Saint Klara of Cheb for chapel of the castle of Cheb.” Let’s break this down.

You can see some of these Cheb locations, as they stand now that are mentioned above, at Cheb’s Wepage and the above map link which I think shows them in period as well. So does this page.

The convent was founded as a Franciscan church, and functioned as such for a couple hundred years, but converted to a Minorite (“Minores”) order in the 1500’s – which is whwen this map was made. (go about half way across) *right* next to the what we conclude to be the very Convent of St Klara (“S:Klara”) Cheb’s page even notes the order change: “Franciscan church: The Minorite church was built simultaneously with a convent after 1247 when Franciscans settled in Cheb. A vestry and adjacent portion of walling has been preserved from the original building from the mid-13th Century. A cloister of the convent from the 1st half of the 14th Century is one of the most beautiful landmarks in the town’s historical center.” So we know it was there at the right time, and we know it’s still there. Now, If you look at the modern pic of the Minorite churchand the period map of Cheb when it was Eger, Germany, you can see a definite resemblance of the modern and to the towers of “S:Klara” and the adjacent”Minores” in the map, which would be the Minorite Church.

In the 15th Century a bunch of Franciscan monasteries converted sub order called Minorite, who I thinks were a little more conservative, even more than the “Poor Clare’s” who were founded by St Clare and who’s tenants included strict cloistering away from the world and devout poverty.

We know that the the Convent of St Klara was adjacendt to the “Minorite” church from the map. We’re at the very least in the right area of town, and it’s really cool to at least see in period where it came from, if it is from where they say.

John Moorman, MEDIEVAL FRANCISCAN HOUSES, St. Bonaventure (NY): The Franciscan Institute, 1983:[page 169:] FRANCISCAN FRIARY AT “EGER (Cheb): Franciscan Province of Saxony or Bohemia, Leipzig.”Before 1256 (AFH v, 362). In 1270 the town was burnt down, including the church of the friars. Four friars and ten others were burnt to death in the church (AF ii, 83). It became Observant in due course, but the date of this is uncertain. Some say 1463 (“Beiträge Sächs. 1907, 9); others give 1465 (AFH v, 362) or 1472 (FS i, 239).”[page 582] POOR CLARES at Eger “Founded c. 1270 being built next to the friars’ convent (AFH v, 362-3). Some put the date as 1264 and say that the house was affiliated to Seusslitz (S. Chiara 438). In 1465 some sisters were sent from Nuremberg to carry out reforms (AF ii, 417-8).”Abbesses: “c. 1270: Adelheit von Lobhaus (Wauer, Entstehung 141n); 1469: Felicity Trautmann (AF ii, 418, 477); 1469 Margaret Grunther (Priorissa) AFii, 418, 477)”

And who was it made for?
It says in the plate description… ” …for chapel of the castle of Cheb” (again, it was Eger)Cheb’s page shows them too. Here’s the castle and here’s the castle’s chapel interior (and A detail picture). Here’s a modern Map of Cheb , you an see the castle (#4) up in the the northern bend of the river.
#8 is the convent.
#3 is where the piece lives now, the Musem of Cheb.

The Beads: Where did they come from?

Cheb is located less than 40 Kilometers from the small bavarian town of Bischofsgrun, Germany, which is just a few miles on the other side of the modern Czech/German Border.Bischofsgrun is important in many ways. It is one of the first glassmaking capitols in that part of Europe. A “glass hut” (translation from web) was found dating from 900. “Bischofesgrune” was first mentioned in 1242. The tradition of glass-making was first mentioned in 1340 (*1). by 1536 they had 39 glass houses (*2). Duke Albrecht V requested the court cartographer to a map of Bavaria in 1554-1561. In it he included the desctiption as: “Here there are many Glassworks, (producing) blown glass, exceptional mirror glass, and glass beads.” (*3). Modernly Bischofsgrun is famed for it’s history as a medieval stained glass center, and is part of many “glass tours” for those who study glass history. I think it’s a good possibility the beads may have come from Bischofsgrun, or even perhaps there was an even closer factory. Glass makers were considered a reputable and desirable industry.

(*1).source: Bischofsgrun, Germany glass tour website
(*2) source: Bischofsgrun, Germany website
(*3) source: Sibyll Jorgstaff, Glass Beads Of EuropeNEW Text about Cheb History: Following text from this page on Cheb:

The history of Cheb, one of Bohemia’s oldest towns, dates from the 9th century. The remains of a Slavonic settlement have been found on the site of todays castle, in its strategic location above the Ohre river. The first reference to Cheb was in a document by Germany king Heinrich IV., in 1061. The town was then called Egre, derived from “Agara”, the Celtic name of the river running through it and taken into German as “Eger”. The Czech name goes back at least to 1322. During the 12th century, Cheb came under the administration of the margraves of Vohburg and German colonization followed. In 1149, Cheb came under the House of Hohenstauf. Friedrich Barbarossa, the emperor and the most significant member of the family, made Cheb a stronghold of his power politics aimed against the Principality of Bohemia. Czech rulers, however, also proved interested in the regions strategic location. Using the claim to inheritance as a pretext, Premysl Otakar II invaded the once Slavonic territory in 1266 and temporarily annexed it to Bohemia. Until 1305 the region was administered by Vaclav II, Otakars son, who gained control over it as part of the dowry of his wife Guta, a daughter of the Emperor Rudolph of Hapsburg. Although the town was repeatedly taken by the German Empire after Vaclavs death, the inhabitants of Cheb maintained good relations with Bohemia and, after the Premyslid dynasty, became growingly concerned about stability. The permanent annexation of Cheb to the Bohemian Crown Lands came in 1322. John of Luxembourg, the Czech king, acquired the region from Ludwig the Bavarian as a hereditary pledge in recognition of service in the fight for the Emperors throne.

In the 14th century, Cheb was one of the leading towns in the kingdom, being the fourth biggest in Bohemia with a population of 7300. It received many privileges: the Golden Bull made Cheb inhabitants free of duties and tolls throughout the Empire, they had a provincial parliament, a provincial high court, and the minting right (1235). An important trade route, the Via Regia, led through town. During the Hussite wars, the town sided with Catholics and was the point of departure for the 1421 and 1427 crusades. History records the diplomatic negotiations of the Basel Ecclesiastic Council and the Hussites over the conditions of the latters attendance. Chebs faith in Jiri of Podebrady, the “Hussite” king, was confirmed not only by this many visits but also by his childrens weddings taking place in the town.

During the Thirty Years War, Cheb suffered attacks by Swedish, Saxon and imperial troops. The town went down in European history on the bloodstained date of 25 February 1634, when Albrecht of Wallenstein, the Emperors high commander, died at the hands of the Irish captain Deveroux.

Because of the war and the general decline of towns, the economy became stagnant. By a 1652 decree issued by Ferdinand III, Cheb was converted into a military fortress. When completed in 1740, however, the mighty Baroque structure was outdated and challenge to French troops laying siege two years later. An imperial contract brought leading Baroque architects to Cheb: K.Dienzenhofer, P.Bayer, G.Alliprandi, A.Pfeffer and others. Thanks to them the town boasts some marvelous buildings, e.g. St Clares Church, the Dominican monastery, the town hall, etc. The towns appearance was dramatically changed by the early 19th century. The fortifications were pulled down and a large part of the original Gothic town wall together with the gates was demolished. And still another event, deprived Cheb of its medieval features: the great fire of 1809. It destroyed more than 100 houses. Chebs oldest church, St John the Baptist, included.

Industrial development brought revival, in both economy and culture. In 1938, came the Munich agreement, followed by World War II. The ultimate displacement of German residents, eventually depopulated Chebs historical center, accelerating a catastrophic decay of monuments. Only resolute refurbishment put an end to such dilapidation (1956-1969). Since 1989 Cheb has become a notable culture and bussines center. International activities, like Euroregio Egrensis, have restored the tradition, and the unique character of the region.

14th Century: Antependium (Marienwerder)

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CHRIST IN GLORY
Antependium from Closter ofMarienwerder Lower Saxony
14th C. Hanover, Kestnermuseum (W.M. XXII, 5)
102 x 180 cm.
Detail: Mandorala, 38 cm high

Chinese red silk damask, 14th century; seed pearls, coral beads, semi-precious stones in metal settings, stamped parcel-gilt silver plaques, stars and rosettes. Black, turquoise coloured and gold glass beads. Applied work and bead embroidery. The figures are worked on parchment. The silver plaques on the outer border of the altar frontal (not shown here) bear the arms of the Hamersen family.

Lit.: Norddeutsche Goldschmiedearbeiten und Stickereien des Mittelaltars. Ausstellung, Museum fur Kunst und Gewerve, Hamburg 1948, No. 92 – Sonderausstellung, Kestnermuseum, Hanover 1956/57, No. 54

Source: Schuette, Marie and Sigrid Muller-Christensen: Pictorial History of Embroidery ; NY: Frederick Praeger, 1964.

Antependium aus Kloster Marienwerder
Niedersachsen, frühes 14. Jh.
chinesische Seide mit Stickereien aus Seide, Perlen, Halbedelsteine, Glasflüsse, vergoldete Silberplättchen
102 x 180 cm
Hannover, Kestner-Museum
Inv.Nr. W.M. XXII,5

Christus thront in der Mandorla, umgeben von den vier Evangelistensymbolen.

Krone und Schleier. Kunst aus mittelalterlichen Frauenklöstern (Ausst.kat. Bonn, Essen), München 2005, Kat. 55.

13th Century: Antependium (Halberstadt)

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13th Century: Cap of Alfonso X

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13th Century: Alb

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Künstler: Palermo, Königliche Hofwerkstätten
Palermo, 1181 mit späteren Ergänzungen

Textil; liturgisches Gewand; Krönungsornat

Textil; Seide, Golddrahtstickerei, Perlen, Smaragde, Saphire, Amethyst, Spinell, Granat, Opal, Brettchengewebe

Translation: Silk, goldwork embroidery, pearls, Emerald, Sapphire, Amethyst, Spinel, Granat, woven strap (inkle?)

H. 154 cm, B. 127 cm

Inschrift:
“+OPERATV(M) FELICI VRBE PANORMI XV. ANNO D(OMI)NI W(ILLELMI) D(E)I GR(ATIA) REGIS SICILIE DVCAT(VS) APVLIE ET PRINCIPAT(VS) CAP(VE) FILII REGIS W(ILLELMI) INDICTIO(N)E XIIII.”; arabische Tulut-Schrift (Übersetzung s. Kat. Schatzkammer 1987)

Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Weltliche Schatzkammer

13th Century: Reliquary hanging

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13th Century reliquary hanging, German

Bezants, beaded tassle tops and beads around the little glass (?) insets.

13th Century: Mitre (Halberstadt)

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13th Century: Sudarium

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13th Century: Square Reliquary Box

372439999_7d4f8ef046_oSquare box Reliquary
Niedersachsen, second half of 13th Cen.
Domkammer, Münster, Germany

Still looking for color pics of this shot. BU, I have a feeling there is Gold beads, coral and blue seed. Those are the standards.

Pictures from “Stadt im Wandel: Kunst und Kultur des Bürgetums in Norddeutchland 1150-1650”

13th Century: Shoes of the Holy Roman Emperor

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1220, Shoes of the Holy Roman Emperor
Kunsthistorische Museum, Vienna Sicily, beginning of the 13th century

Altered in Nuremberg between 1612 and 1619 Calf with red silk and gold edging; precious stones and pearls;L 25.5 cm and 26 cm each .¾

Like the gloves, these shoes were presumably made before 1220 for the Emperor Friedrich II.

13th Century: Cap and Belt of Fernando de la Certa

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Cap belonging to Ferdinanado de la Certa, died aged 20 , 1211 or 1275, Spanish
Color pictures courtesy of Marianne Perdomo

“In 1942, in the monastery of Santa Maria de los Regalis Huelgas (Burgos, Isapniya), served as a place of coronation and burial place of Spanish kings from the time of its founder, Alfonso VIII, was the tomb of Fernando de la Cerda, the eldest son of Alfonso X of Castile. Inside the tomb stone was placed the body 19-year-old Infanta in a luxurious, richly embroidered silk dress. Mastery of work, wealth and beauty, and not inferior to the waist, the waist is on the Infanta. This belt, unlike other clothing, jewelry heraldic symbols of Castile and Leon, had the marks of the royal houses of England, France and Navarre; presumably on the buckle emblem of Champagne. On the belt, there are also nine other heraldic symbols, not known in the thirteenth century Castile. Where does this thing and whose work he did not know until now, but there is debate about the three versions of its origin: Spanish, French or English.

Basis belt size 1920 mm long and 42 mm wide was woven on the plates and decorated with tiny blue and white glass beads. Inner face with black light green silk embroidered with gold thread. Both ends of the belt are attached two silver gilt plate about 150 mm long. To one of them is fastened the buckle and the other serving as the shank, has a trapezoidal shape and tapers somewhat towards the end. Both plates are decorated with pearls and sapphires, each taken four coated with a thin layer of enamel shield with heraldic images. Heraldic shields placed on the shank, rotated by 90 degrees with respect to all the others who are on the belt. This testifies to the manner of wearing this belt, which included hanging Shank – like the image is on the statue of King John Lackland of England (1199 – 1216), which is in Worcester Cathedral. Belt buckle has a trapezoidal shape. Its hinged lid, designed to regulate the length of the belt and clip it at the right place, is one tripartite shield. Cover decorated with pearls, sapphires and one carnelian.
19 silver gilt belt pads divide into 20 equal parts by 75 mm. Each pad is attached on both sides, in the center – the pearl inset. Arched suspension-mount disposed between the first and second plates (counting from the buckle). It is also made of gilded silver and decorated with pearls and sapphires, repeating motif buckle and tang.
20 sections belt decorated with alternating patterns. 10 of them are filled with intricate geometrical ornament in diamond-shaped framework, none of the images are not repeated, although they are very similar – including on a blue and white color scheme. 10 other sections filled constituents heraldic shields, some of which are repeated also on the buckle and the shank. Shields also made ​​in white and blue color, so it is unlikely that they reflect the actual color shown on them emblems. White and blue colors were not a couple inherent Heraldry Europe XIII century. Shields keep embroidered with white beads birds sitting on divided into 8 segments wheels. The remaining space between the wheel and shield busy little blue birds. Attempts to identify the heraldic symbols of those boards still causing heated debate and has not been successful: no consensus on this issue has not been worked out.” — According to the article by Benjamin L. Wild (2011): Emblems and enigmas: Revisiting the ‘sword’ belt of Fernando de la Cerda, Journal of Medieval History, 37:4, 378-396.

 

13th Century: Host Box

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Beaded container for the Holy Host
Second half of the 13th Century

In german: Ziborium mit perlstickerei, Niedersachen, 2, Halfte 13 JH

Schnutgen Museum, Köln (Cologne) Germany

Color Pictures from “Stadt im Wandel: Kunst und Kultur des Bürgetums in Norddeutchland 1150-1650”

 

15th Century: Lamb Of God

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The Lamb of God
Southern Germany, about 1450-1470 Munich
Bayerisches Nationalmuseum (NN 1100)
Diameter: 8 cm

Red velvet with gold sequins. Relief embroidery. Linen ground with pearls.
Halo and banner in gold and silk embroidery in couched work, satin and chain stitch.
On the other side of the lid is the Veracon, in silk embroidery.

 

13th Century: Orphrey

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In some sources this pointed orphrey end is often paired with two bead saints heads, from the same museum since they are similar in time frame, and materials. Since they are not from the same piece I am seperating them.

13th Century: Stole

“Manipel”, First half of 13th Cen.

In German: Auf dem Mittlestreifen der goldborte finden sich, jeweils paarweise, Vierfüßler, Vogel, baumchen bzh, palmetten, seitlich davon schmale streifen mit Kette aus Rauten – und Winkenhakenformen in gold auf grunbzh. Viloett.
Rechts und links außen steht in Versakein: O SPES DIVINA VIA TUTA POTENS MEDICINA PORRIGE SUBSIDIUM
MISERIS O SANTA MARIA PROTOGE SALVA BENEDIC SANCTIFICA

Closeups are from my Visit to the V&A visit, read notes here.

13th Century: Antependium (Halberstadt)

 german12thAltar frontal of the high altar of Halberstadt Catherdral

Lower Saxony, second half of the 13th century, Halberstadt, Cathedral Museum, No. 203
Throne: about 58 cm high

Detail. Red satin faded to old rose. Bead embroidery on parchment and linen. Coral and glass beads of cylindrical and spherical form, opaque and transparent. Predominant colors: coral red, two shades of green, dark blue shading, to light blue, turquoise, aubergine (i.e. eggplant purple), gold, black.

All the seed pearls and most of the violet glass beads and the gilded plaques are now missing. The outer edge and inner fields of the throne had metal plaques with Romanesque foliage and palmettes (their imprints remain on the material). The effect of the whole is impaired by the white patches left where the seed pearls and gold plaques have disappeared.

Pictoral History of Embroidery, M. Schuette (Library of Congress # 64-13379) [Gestickte Bildteppiche des Mittelalters (in english: Art of Medieval Tapestry), Leipzig1930.] Frederick A. Praeger, Inc, Publisher, New York 1964, 64 University Place, New York 3, New York

13th Century: Gloves

Gloves of the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II

Early 13th century, before 1220
Vienna, Weltliche Schatzkammer

Circumference of the wrist opening: 24 (25) cm Length from the wrist to the point of the middle finger: 25.5 (27) cm

Red silk. Gold embroidery in couched work. The back of the hand is rechley embroidered with pearls, rubies, sapphires and enamelled plawues (four of the latter have been lost and replaced by others). On the inner side, a single-headed nimbed eagle. The gloves were made in the Royal Workshops of Sicily for the Emperor Frederick II and were worn by him at his coronation in 1220.

Lit.: H. Fillitz, Die Insignien und Kleinodien des Heiligen, Romischen Reiches. Vienna- Munich 1954, p. 59, figs. 31, 32 – P. E. Schramm und F. Mutherich, Denkmale der deutschen Konige und Kaiser, Munich 1962, p. 190, No. 200

Source: Schuette, Marie and Sigrid Muller-Christensen: Pictorial History of Embroidery ; NY: Frederick Praeger, 1964.

Some Images kindly provided by Prof Michael Greenhalgh

Tools of the Trade

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Thread:
First off I can’t say enough about using the right thread. That said, Coast and Clark, while being a FINE machine thread, has no place in a bead tool box. It simply can’t handle being drug through glass over and over. Glass beads while they may appear smooth, have microscopic teeth almost, the poly/cotton simply can’t handle it.

For woven work, try to use only 100%nylon NYMO brand style beading thread, which come in copious colors and thicknesses.

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For fabric based work, use the more expensive sewing thread in your local fabric shop, those european ones of 100% long grain polyester (my preference if doing fabric based beadwork).

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They usually price at $4 or less for a under 200 yards. The brand I use is  Mettler Metrosene. The 100% poly stuff last SOOOO much longer, you’ll thank me later. Trust me, I’ve had Coats and Clark break after three stitches, I’m trying to teach you to not make my mistakes.

I very rarely break or fray using them like I did when I used Coats & Clark.The thread goes a long way so just bite down and buy it, it’ll last years, and most times you can use it to the end of the string.

Thread Conditioner:
Traditionally beeswax was used for bead threads, but it’s the modern day and there are better alternatives. Beeswax is heavy and it will gunk up fine fabric, maker thread tacky and stiff, clog teeny bead needle eyes and bead holes. Instead, use something called “thread heaven”, available at any sewing store. It’s a silicone soft wax type material but leaves thread supple an silky and won’t leave a nasty residue in your needles.

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Hardwood ruler:
Never eyeball a straight line, sometimes pulling the fabric as you have to will skew straight lines, keep redrawing it with a stiff ruler. I use a six inch as it fits better in my box.

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Mechanical Pencil:
ALWAYS use pencil, never ever use a pen, it can and will most probably bleed.

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In time if you can draw it with a mechanical pencil, taking in to coinsideration bead widths, then you can bead it.The eraser also works somewhat on cloth if the mark is light enough.

If you have colored cloth use a colored pencil, so it will wash out.

Fine tip scissors:
If you say really change you mind on a finished section that is partially or even totally secured down, do not despair, just hold the scissors against the cloth and clip across it, under the beads like you were trimming hedges. It will cut the securing threads, and keep your lacing stitchs intact, and you can literally peel off the beads like a bandaid. It’s cool. DONT use a Seam Ripper unlless your a VERY sure hand, one false move and you’ll cut the fabric as well as the thread.

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Thimble and rubber needle puller:
ThimbleSometimes pulling a needle through can be tough, hole sizes can vary. Both these help, put you thumb over the bead in question HARD and pull or push the needle through. Putting pressure on the bead seems to help keep the bead from cracking, if it does, don’t despair, tack down the thread that went through and then out a new one in and then quickly lace it to the beads to either side.

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Needles:
Well duh! But unlike my thread rant, I DO prefer coats & Clark bead needles (they have a yellow package). But, I am not sure they are even made anymore, luckily I have a old collection of the I’m still working through.

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Otherwise your real only other choices are British needles, while highly acclaimed seem to be more brittle, at least to me. I once used a pack of 20 on ONE medallion . They just kept snapping. But if you DO want to buy Brit needles, I like PONY over JOHN JAMES.I like them best because they BEND, and don’t break, and that’s a GOOD thing. Always save the bent needles, they come in handy and are ofttimes more comfortable and easier to use.

shoppingshopping-1A pack of 20 of either comes in a little envelope and go for about $5, much cheaper than buying 4 in a pack in the long run.

More often then not you will lose needles by breakage at the eye. I often pitch them for losing plating. Loss of plating can damage delicate fabrics and cut thin threads, so don’t use a damaged needle.

Tutorial: Build the picture – how to fill in a design

 

 

My V&A Visit Notes & Picks

I visited the V&A storage room in December 2001. I viewed three pieces.
Day before my V&A appointment my digital camera was broken in an accident, so I was forced to use my video camera. These are stills from that footage. Luckily it had amazing macro.

My Notes and Observations from my Visit to the V&A backroom.PDF

Personal photos from appointment:

Beaded Saints (I call them the Bead Gees since they look like Barry, Maurice, and Robin, sorry, child of the disco era…)

Beaded Orphrey

Beaded Stole

Cheat Sheet: German Terminology

Here are some basic terms you will encounter in German art books or plate listings. If you can pick out at least these terms you should have the basics.

Materials

Textil/Textilen – Textile/Textiles
Seide = Silk
Leinen – Linen
Wolle = Wool
Baumwolle = Cotton

Holz = Wood (as in made of, a “wooden” object)
Baum = Tree

Korallen = Coral
Gold = Gold
Silber = Silver
Metall = Metal
Edelmetall = Precious Metal
Email, Emaille = Enamel
Kette = Chain
Bein = Bone
Elfenbein = Elephant Ivory
Glas = Glass
Kristall = Crystal (Glass)
Bergkristall = Crystal (Quartz)

Perle/Perlen = synonymous for beads and pearls of all kinds.
Glasperlen = specifically beads made of glass
Flußperlen = “Water perles”/Freshwater Pearls. Only seen occassionally.

Schmuck = many meanings… jewelry, ornament, embellishment, trinket… sparklies!

Schmuckbrakteaten = decorative coinlike discs, usually gold. These are a thin stamped highly detailed and decorative gold discs of foil usually sewn onto altar hangings or liturgical ceremonial wear. Sometimes seen applied to paintings as well. Usually seems to be interchangable with Plättchen. The same as us calling the fake round shiny metal things on belly dance scarves “coins”. They look like them, sorta, but aren’t.

Plättchen = discs or plates (known as bezants in sca)
Goldplattchen = Gold discs (known as bezants in sca)

Stäbchen = Sticks, also refers both to knitting and crochet needles as well as chopsticks, and bugle-shaped beads.

Item Terminology

Stickerei = Embroidery
Perlenstickerei = Beaded Embroidery
Gestickt = Embroidered
Gewebt = Woven

Reliquien, Reliquiare = Reliquary
Ziborium = Container for the Holy Host (Communion wafer)

Farben = Color, coloring

Colors:
Rot = Red
Gelb = yellow
Grün = Green
Blau = Blue
Purpur = purple
Schwarz = Black
Weiß = White

Musuem, Art and Location terms

Kunst = Art
Künstler = Artist

Sammlungen, Sammlung = Collection
Museumsführer = Musuem Guide (brochure)
Ausstellungen = Exhibitions
Ausstellungskatalog = Exhibitions Catalog
Landesmuseum = State Museum
Orte = Places, location
Stadt = City, municipality
Staat, Staaten = State (region/province)
Öffentliche = Public, as in publically owned or operated.
Halböffentlich, Halböffentlicher = Semi-public
Privatbesitz = Private Hands (Private Collection/Collector)

Historisches = Historical
Geschichte = History
Kunstgewerbe = Arts and crafts, applied arts
Sonstiges = Miscellaneous, assorted, various

Kirche/Kirchen = Church (Parish)
Dom = Cathedral
Dommuseum = Cathedral Musuem
Domschatz = Cathedral Treasure
Kunstschatz = Art Treasure
Schatz = Treasury

Kloster = Monastery, friary, cloistered religious order (singular)
Klöster = Monasteries, friaries, cloistered religious orders (plural)
Frauenkloster = Convent, nunnery (singular)
Frauenklöster = Convents, nunneries (plural

Time and Numbers

Jahr/Jahren = Year/Years
Abbreviated is “j”
Useage: 1635 jahren or jahr 1478

Jahrhundert – Century
Abbreviated is “jh”
Useage: 16. jahrhundert is 16th century – not 1600′s.

Centuries are always in numerals, followed by a dot (example “14. Jh”). They are never spelled out as we do in English, like the words “fourteen” or “fourteenth”.

Handwritten number 1′s can look like an inverted v possibly dotted as a letter “i” would be, so they can be very confusing on some handwritten records if you don’t know what you are looking at.

Tutorial: Making a Medallion

Start with the How-To do bead Embroidery tutorial… then use this tutorial to progress to to medallions

DOWNLOAD PDF OF THIS LESSON

 

Tutorial: Machine Washable Beadwork

A non-period method for a period-looking result and modern staying power.

First, this is really easy, whenever I teach folks they go “That’s it? That’s easy!”.

It really is simple, you won’t believe it. My students come back going! "WOW! everyone thinks I’m like a god now!" Really. Once you do it a few times, you’re hooked because it progresses faster than regular embroidery.

Yes, as far as my embroidery goes, everything is couched within an inch of it’s life. No escape, no surrender.

Period method was to string all the beads on at once and then one by one couch them in place with a second thread. It’s hard cumbersome and not durable, if a thread broke you could loose whole lines.

I have developed a method that is in looks Identical to period couching but is… gasp… machine washable and sturdy as a elephant and even can be worn in yes… battle.

* First USE good heavy cloth, broad cloth weight weave will pull apart and believe it or not, the weave will form holes and beads will flip around to the backside if you aren’t careful. I’ve done this, trust me, use cloth up to the task.

* I recommend you do pieces Oxford, light canvas, or even trigger type materials. They have a dense heavy weave. Basically if you can read a license plate through it it’s too light. If you are doing accent pieces for light garb recommend you appliqué it on, hey it’s period! And if the garment wears out, you simply remove it and apply to something else.

* If you want fabric showing around and IN your design but one that isn’t capable of handling it, or want added protection, BACK the material with trigger or somesuch. More is never a bad thing.

13th Century: Cap and Belt of Fernando de la Certa

Cap & belt  belonging to Ferdinanado de la Certa, died aged 20 , 1211 or 1275, Spanish

According to the article by Benjamin L. Wild (2011): Emblems and enigmas: Revisiting the ‘sword’ belt of Fernando de la Cerda, Journal of Medieval History, 37:4, 378-396.

In 1942, in the monastery of Santa Maria de los Regalis Huelgas (Burgos, Isapniya), served as a place of coronation and burial place of Spanish kings from the time of its founder, Alfonso VIII, was the tomb of Fernando de la Cerda, the eldest son of Alfonso X of Castile. Inside the tomb stone was placed the body 19-year-old Infanta in a luxurious, richly embroidered silk dress. Mastery of work, wealth and beauty, and not inferior to the waist, the waist is on the Infanta. This belt, unlike other clothing, jewelry heraldic symbols of Castile and Leon, had the marks of the royal houses of England, France and Navarre; presumably on the buckle emblem of Champagne. On the belt, there are also nine other heraldic symbols, not known in the thirteenth century Castile. Where does this thing and whose work he did not know until now, but there is debate about the three versions of its origin: Spanish, French or English.
Basis belt size 1920 mm long and 42 mm wide was woven on the plates and decorated with tiny blue and white glass beads. Inner face with black light green silk embroidered with gold thread. Both ends of the belt are attached two silver gilt plate about 150 mm long. To one of them is fastened the buckle and the other serving as the shank, has a trapezoidal shape and tapers somewhat towards the end. Both plates are decorated with pearls and sapphires, each taken four coated with a thin layer of enamel shield with heraldic images. Heraldic shields placed on the shank, rotated by 90 degrees with respect to all the others who are on the belt. This testifies to the manner of wearing this belt, which included hanging Shank – like the image is on the statue of King John Lackland of England (1199 – 1216), which is in Worcester Cathedral. Belt buckle has a trapezoidal shape. Its hinged lid, designed to regulate the length of the belt and clip it at the right place, is one tripartite shield. Cover decorated with pearls, sapphires and one carnelian.

19 silver gilt belt pads divide into 20 equal parts by 75 mm. Each pad is attached on both sides, in the center – the pearl inset. Arched suspension-mount disposed between the first and second plates (counting from the buckle). It is also made of gilded silver and decorated with pearls and sapphires, repeating motif buckle and tang.
20 sections belt decorated with alternating patterns. 10 of them are filled with intricate geometrical ornament in diamond-shaped framework, none of the images are not repeated, although they are very similar – including on a blue and white color scheme. 10 other sections filled constituents heraldic shields, some of which are repeated also on the buckle and the shank. Shields also made ​​in white and blue color, so it is unlikely that they reflect the actual color shown on them emblems. White and blue colors were not a couple inherent Heraldry Europe XIII century. Shields keep embroidered with white beads birds sitting on divided into 8 segments wheels. The remaining space between the wheel and shield busy little blue birds. Attempts to identify the heraldic symbols of those boards still causing heated debate and has not been successful: no consensus on this issue has not been worked out.

Text from “Bead Embroidery” by Joan Edwards”

“In Spain, too, examples of very old beading are not unknown, and a beaded cap was recovered from the tomb of Ferdinanado de la Certa who was buried in Las Huelgas, Burgos in 1275. It is worked in blue glass beads, seed pearls and coral beads on a linen material stretched over a framework of wood and bound around the edges with gold foil. Rampant lions and double headed eagles* cover the cap on a chequered background, and like the head dresses from Mount Carmel the cap may have been considered of some value, or it would not have been used for burial.”

*Grizel’s Note:

 Double headed eagles are also more a later period German charge, not a early period spanish one. Especially since I also have the accompanying armourial surcote. It is covered with the arms as well (not beaded so it was not included here), and they are the more typical 3 Tower-type castles on it.

The author of the above quote must not have seen a good picture of the piece because her sketches are quite awful, I won’t use her drawings on this site as they are quite ugly and more confusing than anything else.

13th Century: German Panels

On parchement with beads and seed pearls
German, 13th Century Blue glass, red coral, gold and seed pearls (most salvaged/looted) on parchment with linen thread.

The two detached pieces are in the V&A collection, the one with the more colorful halo and still attached to the  edging, is in a musuem in germany. The pair in the V&A appear for all intents and purposes to have been removed from the German piece and were sold in the late 40’s (war happens). I have worked up a comparison, they are as best I can deduce made by the same hand.

While they are technically two different pieces, I have decided to  present them together as they are from the same work.

Text from “Beadwork, (Shire Album #57)”, Pamela Claburn“head in blue beads and coral”

“The american indians… here the beads are threaded and laid on the ground material. The attaching thread is quite seperate and is brought up from below and cathes down the thread between the two beads. this is in effect, a form of couching.” “Exactly the same method of attachment was used in the german beadwork of the 12th Century. Here it is combined with with the sewing on of single beads where the design required it, but it can be seen that are long strands of the same colours and only a very few single colors even in such detailed parts of the design as the faces. Six hundred years later the method was still being used” 

Text from “Bead Embroidery”
By Joan Edwards.

“Long before needlewomen of the nineteenth century discovered the possibilities of beadwork, comparatively coarse beads had been used in various parts of Europe for embroidery for a very long time indeed. A great deal of work was done, for example, during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in Lower Saxony, examples of which can be seen in Hanover and Darmstadt. The beads were usually attached to vellum, and it has been suggested that the existence of this beadwork might-like the German whitework or “opus teutonicum” of the Middle Ages-be interpreted as a sign of poverty amongst the German convents at this time, and that the beads were perhaps a substitute for work in pearls, precious metals, and the coveted Byzantine enamels. Nevertheless, the vestments and hangings must have gleamed with considerable beauty in the dark, candle lit cathedrals and churches, shining through the dimness like the stained glass in the windows, and there seems little doubt that the designs were good and well drawn.”